adrenal fatigue

Discussion in 'Fibromyalgia Main Forum' started by crickett, Feb 17, 2010.

  1. crickett

    crickett New Member

    I would like to know if amino acids are good to take for adrenal glands. I have read several posts from some who do not do well on isocort. And i know if i asked my doctor about this issue he would just brush it off as the fibromyalgia. I have been reading the stop the thyroid madness book and i deffinently have symptoms of adrenal fatigue. Or if there is a good adrenal support out there that has no pregnelone in it . Any input i would love to here.
    thanks crickett
  2. victoria

    victoria New Member

    Try Adrenal Health Support from PharmaHealth...

    on advice from our family doctor, our kids are taking it and so do I. It has dessicated adrenal tx plus pituitary, a couple of vitamins..

    tho I do think the physiological dosage of cortisol was better, I can't get it where I live now (Mexico), only prednisolone which doesn't work well for me. Amazingly tho they do sell it down here in doses of only 2.5 mgs.

    hope that helps- No pregnenelone in it either.

    all the best,

    [This Message was Edited on 02/17/2010]
  3. gapsych

    gapsych New Member

    If you suspect adrenal fatigue, you need to see your PCP or perhaps a referral to an endocrinologist.

    The endocrine system, like other systems in our body, works as a balancing act. If you do not have adrenal fatigue and take something that may change the balance, it will effect other things such as thyroid, etc..

    While symptoms give a doctor information there can be so many overlapping conditions, you need to have a blood test to see what is going on. Also, the saliva test is not a valid test for your cortisol levels.

    Just my two cents.

    Good luck.

    [This Message was Edited on 02/18/2010]
  4. gapsych

    gapsych New Member

    The following article is a Science Based site for help with Thyroid and Adrenal problems. The rest of the article can be accessed at the following site. It mentions Adrenal fatigue towards the end of this post.


    ...... Unbeknownst to you, many of the sites, including listservs that you assume to be reputable, are very anti-medicine. They are frequented by people who have been ill for years and who did not receive the help they needed from their doctors, so they took their medical care into their own hands. They have discovered that they can buy Armour thyroid online without a prescription, as well as Cortef, a form of cortisone.

    You’re relieved to discover people with the same problem! After months, if not years, of searching, you’ve finally found the answer, and now you have a community of people with the same symptoms. Unlike your doctor, they have all the time in the world to talk to you, and while he may be clipped and abrupt at times, they’re warm and empathetic. You join the forums, make friends, and buy your Armour online, although fellow forum members are careful to alert you to the potential risks of self-medicating. If the medication gives you palpitations and makes you nervous, the group might say that you’re suffering from adrenal exhaustion — ah ha! Who would’ve known? Your stupid doctor forgot about that, too. You’re beginning to hate your doctor, and because other forum members are doing so, you purchase Cortef on your own because, after all, how can it hurt? It’s such a low dose.

    WRONG! No one should be on cortisone without a prescription. It can cause weak and brittle bones.[13] Likewise about treating your own thyroid. It’s not smart, and excess thyroid hormone can cause osteoporosis as well as heart arrhythmias. But numerous people are doing it online because they feel abandoned by doctors[15] Some groups advocate treating yourself by symptoms alone and completely disregarding lab work.[16]

    Certain alternative doctors have also declared that all lab tests are either unreliable or unnecessary. Dr. Broda Barnes[17] established quite a name for himself by publishing two books that advocated testing your thyroid by taking your basal (underarm) temperature with a mercury thermometer — if the temperature is low, then, eureka, your thyroid is underactive.[18]

    Dr. Kenneth Ain,[19] Director of the University of Kentucky Thyroid Clinic, says that there is a "cult-like mind control on some of the listservs and Internet organizations" where doctors are labelled as "closed minded" if they won’t prescribe T3 to their self-diagnosing patients.[20]

    But this vast patients' rights movement must be taken seriously. There’s a reason why millions of people google their physical symptoms, and it's not because they all suffer from hypochondria or arrogantly believe that they’re smarter than their doctors. These are real people, mainly women, who are sick and in pain. What they are seeking is good, reliable information.

    If you want to approach your thyroid diagnosis from a skeptical point of view, know the facts. Ideally, your TSH should be between 0.3 to 2.0.[21] However, if your TSH is at 3.8 and you feel fine, don’t worry about it. ADRENAL EXHAUSTION is a serious endocrine disorder, known in its extreme form as Addison’s disease.[22] It’s only within the alternative medicine community that this term is tossed around loosely to mean a total burnout that can be effectively treated by low-dose cortisone. If you’re worried about your adrenals, speak to your doctor and have your cortisol

    [This Message was Edited on 02/18/2010]
  5. richvank

    richvank New Member

    Hi, gapsych.

    I don't believe the following statement from your post today is true:

    "Also, the saliva test is not a valid test for your cortisol levels."

    In fact, saliva testing is the best way to test cortisol levels, for at least a couple of reasons.

    First, it measures free cortisol, which is the fraction that binds to the glucocorticoid receptors and is the active form. The blood test measures total cortisol, including that bound to the carrier protein, which does not reflect the levels of the active cortisol.

    Second, it is important, especially in CFS, to measure the diurnal variation of cortisol over an entire 24-hour period. This is readily done by saliva testing at home, while blood testing is not.

    Here is the abstract of a recent review paper on this topic:

    J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Oct;94(10):3647-55. Epub 2009 Jul 14.

    Utility of salivary cortisol measurements in Cushing's syndrome and adrenal insufficiency.

    Raff H.

    Endocrine Research Laboratory, Aurora St. Luke's Medical Center, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53215, USA.

    Context: The measurement of cortisol in saliva is a simple, reproducible, and reliable test to evaluate the normal and disordered control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. There are a variety of simple methods to obtain saliva samples without stress, making this a robust test applicable to many different experimental and clinical situations. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Ovid Medline and PubMed from 1950 to present were searched using the following strategies: [<saliva or salivary>and<cortisol or hydrocortisone>and<Cushing or Cushing's>] and [<saliva or salivary>and<cortisol or hydrocortisone>and<adrenal insufficiency or hypoadrenalism or hypopituitarism or Addison's disease>]. The bibliographies of all relevant citations were evaluated for any additional appropriate citations. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Measurement of an elevated late-night (2300 to 2400 h) salivary cortisol has a greater than 90% sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of endogenous Cushing's syndrome. Late-night salivary cortisol measurements are also useful to monitor patients for remission and/or recurrence after pituitary surgery for Cushing's disease. Because it is a surrogate for plasma free cortisol, the measurement of salivary cortisol may be useful during an ACTH stimulation test in patients with increased plasma binding protein concentrations due to increased estrogen, or decreased plasma binding protein concentrations during critical illness. Most reference laboratories now offer salivary cortisol testing. CONCLUSIONS: It is expected that the use of the measurement of salivary cortisol will become routine in the evaluation of patients with disorders of the HPA axis.

    PMID: 19602555 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    For those who are interested in doing a 24-hour saliva cortisol test at home, you can order the Saber Science test kit without a doctor's order from, run the test at home, send in the samples, and receive the results sent directly to you. I have no financial connection to directlabs or Sabre Science.

    Best regards,

  6. richvank

    richvank New Member

    Hi, lincamp.

    The ones I know of are Sabre Science


    and Metametrix

    Best regards,

  7. victoria

    victoria New Member

    What do you think about the saliva tests for hormonal levels as well? I've heard they're best if used with blood tests combined, even for cortisol... but not sure why.

    Even tho my cortisol challenge test didn't technically show a need for it tho I was at the low end, I found taking low dose cortisol to be really helpful - TG for my doctor letting me try it! -it totally eliminated my daily need for a 2 hour nap for a long time, even tho I only took it for 6 months. Just goes to show how wrong so many tests can be, there's no 'magic' cut-off point.


    all the best,

  8. gapsych

    gapsych New Member

    I may have mixed up the saliva test not being valid for another condition but will certainly check this out.


  9. richvank

    richvank New Member

    Hi, Victoria.

    There are pros and cons to blood, urine and saliva sampling for the steroid hormones. I guess I favor 24-hour urine testing, because it compensates for pulsatile secretion and is more representative of what's happening averaged over the day.

    Here is a table giving the pros and cons, from Genova Diagnostics, which offers all three types, and therefore may have less of an axe to grind than labs that do only one sample type:

    Best regards,

  10. victoria

    victoria New Member

    I'll look it up!


  11. gapsych

    gapsych New Member

    According to the following article the only accurate saliva test is LATE NIGHT cortisol for Cushing's disease which is what your article is saying. However other conditions often purported to be found by saliva testing by alternative practitioners and web sites are dubious at best.

    The gold standard for most of these type of tests is serum level.

    I would be highly suspicious about doing any home testing unless ordered by a physician or going to alternative labs for these measurements. There is a reason most insurance companies do not cover unapproved labs. See the following article for more about this.

    But the bottom line is that if you suspect you have an endocrinological disease see a science based doctor. Adrenal insufficiency is not as prevalent as what most alternative doctors would have you think.


    Clinical Policy Bulletin:
    Salivary Hormone Tests

    Number: 0608


    Aetna considers salivary tests of estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, melatonin or dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) experimental and investigational for the screening, diagnosis, or monitoring of menopause or diseases related to aging, or any other indications because these tests have not been proven to be valid alternatives to serum tests.

    Aetna considers late night salivary cortisol medically necessary for diagnosing Cushing's syndrome.

    Aetna considers salivary tests of cortisol experimental and investigational for the screening, diagnosis, or monitoring of menopause or diseases related to aging, or any other indications except for Cushing's syndrome.

    Note: In addition, laboratory tests are not covered unless they are ordered by a physician or other qualified health professional. Please check benefit plan descriptions

    Salivary tests of estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, melatonin, cortisol and DHEA have become available to consumers over the Internet. Some of these websites include a questionnaire to allow consumers to determine whether they need saliva testing, and a form that allows consumers to order these tests online. The results of these tests are purportedly used to determine the need prescriptions of DHEA, vitamins, herbs, phytoestrogens, and other anti-aging regimens.

    The medical literature on salivary testing correlates salivary levels with serum levels, the gold standard measurement. However, the medical literature fails to demonstrate that salivary tests are appropriate for screening, diagnosing, or monitoring patients with menopause, osteoporosis, or other consequences of aging.

    Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines from the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists outline the appropriate methods of screening and diagnosing menopause and osteoporosis. The primary test for menopause screening is serum FSH, for thyroid dysfunction serum TSH, and bone density measurement is the primary method of screening for osteoporosis. None of these guidelines indicates salivary testing as an appropriate method of screening, diagnosing, or monitoring these disorders.

    According to available guidelines, primary hypoadrenalism (Addison’s disease) is suggested by a markedly elevated plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) with low or normal serum cortisol. The diagnosis of adrenocortical insufficiency is established primarily by use of the rapid ACTH stimulation test, which involves assessment of the response of serum aldosterone and cortisol to ACTH infusion.

    Furthermore, there is inadequate evidence of the value of measuring salivary components to guide prescription of "anti-aging" regimens. The clinical value of these tests depends not only on how well the salivary testing corresponds to some gold standard (i.e., a serum test), but also upon the evidence of the effectiveness of the particular intervention (anti-aging regimen) that would be prescribed based on the results of the salivary test. Meta-analyses of the literature have questioned the value of supplementation with DHEA and melatonin on improving patient outcomes.

  12. crickett

    crickett New Member

    Thanks for all of your responces on this issue. I guess i am even more confused now since i have been reading this stop the thyroid maddness book. I have been told before that doctors do not go by our symptoms they only go by our labwork. I still have all the hypo symptoms So i was reading about our adrenals. Ok so is the saliva testing good or is it bad. ???? I have been to 4 endos as far as my thyroid and health issues all say everything is ok. And i have had friends who have had thyroid problems and tests were normal and futher testing resulting in severe hypothyroid. I have been seeing a irrodoligist for the last 4 years and he keeps telling me adrenals . I mention to my doctor any he says everythings fine. So i guess i am confused now.
    thanks crickett
  13. mbofov

    mbofov Active Member

    Several years ago my chiropractor gave me an adrenal glandular product called Drenatrophin PMG by Standard Process. There's no pregnenelone in it. This helped me a lot when my adrenals were quite weak. There were no bad side effects. If I were you, I'd try an adrenal glandular product like this one or the one Victoria recommended or something similar. Another good one is Cytozyme AD by Biotics. There is no cortisol or other hormones in it either.

    I also had the adrenal stress index saliva test done, and it showed my cortisol levels were quite high at night, causing severe middle of the night insomnia. For that I took something called Seriphos (phosphorylated serine), which normalized my levels. But you shouldn't take Seriphos without testing because if your cortisol is low, it can make it go too low.

    So my adrenals were weak, even though I had high cortisol, and again, the adrenal glandular products helped a lot. I'd give them a try.

  14. richvank

    richvank New Member

    Hi, gapsych and the group.

    A PubMed search on "cortisol and saliva" produced 2,456 papers in medical journals. Below is a small sampling of abstracts of recent ones. Saliva testing for cortisol is used for a wide variety of purposes, worldwide, and is very well accepted in the biomedical research community as being valid.

    Note that the first abstract is from a paper coauthored by Esther Sternberg from the NIH. Esther is a leading stress researcher.

    Best regards,


    Neuroimmunomodulation. 2010;17(3):205-8. Epub 2010 Feb 4.
    Evaluation of stress systems by applying noninvasive methodologies: measurements of neuroimmune biomarkers in the sweat, heart rate variability and salivary cortisol.

    Marques AH, Silverman MN, Sternberg EM.

    National Institute of Mental Health/NIH, Rockville, MD 20892-9401, USA.

    The two main arms of the stress system include the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. These two neural stress systems coordinate the response of many other physiological systems to a stressor, including the immune and cardiovascular systems, bringing the body back to homeostasis. The nervous and immune systems communicate with each other in a bidirectional manner. In this review, we will discuss the use of noninvasive methods to evaluate the immune system, ANS and HPA axis. Collection of sweat and saliva, and measurement of heart rate variability are noninvasive methods that can be applied to evaluate neuroimmune interactions. Recently, we validated a new methodology to simultaneously evaluate a large array of neural and immune biomarkers in sweat, collected through cutaneous sweat patches and measured by recycling immunoaffinity chromatography. Noninvasive and ambulatory methodologies of biomarker collection can overcome several limitations intrinsic to invasive methods, such as reducing the stress triggered by collection itself and allowing a wider application to field and community-based settings. Ultimately, simultaneous evaluation of neural and immune systems with noninvasive techniques will help elucidate the underlying interactions of these systems and their role in disease susceptibility and progression of stress-related disorders. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

    PMID: 20134204 [PubMed - in process]

    J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Nov;22(11):1009-15.
    Daily profiles of salivary and urinary melatonin and steroids in healthy prepubertal boys.

    Touitou Y, Auzéby A, Camus F, Djeridane Y.

    Faculté de Médecine Pierre et Marie Curie, Service de Biochimie Médicale et Biologie Moléculaire and INSERM UMRS 975, Paris, France.

    The aim of this study was to assess the circadian hormonal profile of two circadian markers, melatonin and cortisol, as well as other steroids in prepubertal boys (Tanner stage I). Nine volunteer healthy prepubertal boys aged 10.8 +/- 0.11 years participated in this study. Concentrations of daily salivary and urinary hormones were quantified around 24-hours, every 3 hours, in daytime samples (collected between 07.00 h +/- 30 min and 21.00 h +/- 30 min) and night-time samples (collected between 21.00 h +/- 30 min and 07.00 h +/- 30 min). Significant differences (p < 0.01) were found between day- and nighttime secretion of salivary melatonin and urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin, whereas no significant differences were found between day- and nighttime secretion of salivary and urinary cortisol nor between day- and nighttime secretion of 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-OHCS). The circadian profiles of salivary melatonin and cortisol showed large amplitude with a peak occurring at night (approximately 03.00 h) for melatonin and in the early morning (between 06.00 and 09.00 h) for cortisol. The curve patterns of the urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin and steroids (free cortisol and 17-OHCS) were coherent with data on saliva. The pattern of salivary androstenedione and testosterone were undetectable due to the very low concentrations of these steroids in the saliva of the prepubertal children. A strong significant positive correlation was observed between the daily salivary melatonin levels and the daily urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin excretion (R = 0.968, p < 0.001), and between free urinary cortisol and urinary 17-OHCS (R = 0.733, p = 0.025). The salivary and urinary hormones studied were independent of body mass index. This study shows the relevance of salivary cortisol and melatonin, although lower than in plasma, in testing adrenal and pineal function as markers of circadian rhythms. The data are of interest for the diagnosis and treatment of chronobiological disorders in prepubertal children.

    PMID: 20101886 [PubMed - in process]

    J Strength Cond Res. 2010 Jan 21. [Epub ahead of print]
    The Effects of Short-Cycle Sprints on Power, Strength, and Salivary Hormones in Elite Rugby Players.

    Crewther BT, Cook CJ, Lowe TE, Weatherby RP, Gill N.

    1Health and Food Group, The Horticulture and Food Research Institute of New Zealand (HortResearch), Hamilton, New Zealand; 2School of Exercise Science and Sport Management, Southern Cross University, Lismore, Australia; 3United Kingdom Sport Council, London and Imperial College, London, United Kingdom; and 4Institute of Sport and Recreation Research New Zealand, School of Sport and Recreation, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand.

    Crewther, BT, Cook, CJ, Lowe, TE, Weatherby, RP, and Gill, N. The effects of short-cycle sprints on power, strength, and salivary hormones in elite rugby players. J Strength Cond Res 24(x): 000-000, 2010-This study examined the effects of short-cycle sprints on power, strength, and salivary hormones in elite rugby players. Thirty male rugby players performed an upper-body power and lower-body strength (UPLS) and/or a lower-body power and upper-body strength (LPUS) workout using a crossover design (sprint vs. control). A 40-second upper-body or lower-body cycle sprint was performed before the UPLS and LPUS workouts, respectively, with the control sessions performed without the sprints. Bench throw (BT) power and box squat (BS) 1 repetition maximum (1RM) strength were assessed in the UPLS workout, and squat jump (SJ) power and bench press (BP) 1RM strength were assessed in the LPUS workout. Saliva was collected across each workout and assayed for testosterone (Sal-T) and cortisol (Sal-C). The cycle sprints improved BS (2.6 +/- 1.2%) and BP (2.8 +/- 1.0%) 1RM but did not affect BT and SJ power. The lower-body cycle sprint produced a favorable environment for the BS by elevating Sal-T concentrations. The upper-body cycle sprint had no hormonal effect, but the workout differences (%) in Sal-T (r = -0.59) and Sal-C (r = 0.42) concentrations correlated to the BP, along with the Sal-T/C ratio (r = -0.49 to -0.66). In conclusion, the cycle sprints improved the BP and BS 1RM strength of elite rugby players but not power output in the current format. The improvements noted may be explained, in part, by the changes in absolute or relative hormone concentrations. These findings have practical implications for prescribing warm-up and training exercises.

    PMID: 20093968 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    J Pediatr Psychol. 2010 Jan 16. [Epub ahead of print]
    Parents' Psychological Stress Over Time may Affect Children's Cortisol at Age 8.

    Koch FS, Ludvigsson J, Sepa A.

    Division of Pediatrics, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University.

    OBJECTIVE: To examine possible relations between parents' psychological stress and children's saliva cortisol levels in connection with a mild stressor (drawing a blood sample). METHOD: Parenting stress and serious life events at birth, age 1, age 2, age 5, and age 8 were assessed. Eighty-two paired saliva samples collected from their 8-year-old children just before and 30 min after blood was drawn were analyzed. RESULTS: Instead of increasing, cortisol levels significantly decreased. Repeated measures GLM indicated a significant relation between higher parenting stress at child age 1 and at age 8, and elevated cortisol levels. A t-test indicated that cortisol levels after the blood draw were significantly higher in children whose parents reported a serious life event at age 8. CONCLUSION: Parenting stress could be a relevant factor for children's adjustment of the HPA axis with long-term effects and leave children more vulnerable to experiences of stress.

    PMID: 20081219 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    J Pers Soc Psychol. 2010 Jan;98(1):92-103.
    For better or worse? Coregulation of couples' cortisol levels and mood states.

    Saxbe D, Repetti RL.

    Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

    Although a majority of adults live with a close relationship partner, little is known about whether and how partners' momentary affect and physiology covary, or "coregulate." This study used a dyadic multilevel modeling approach to explore the coregulation of spouses' mood states and cortisol levels in 30 married couples who sampled saliva and reported on mood states 4 times per day for 3 days. For both husbands and wives, own cortisol level was positively associated with partner's cortisol level, even after sampling time was controlled. For wives, marital satisfaction weakened the strength of this effect. Partner's negative mood was positively associated with own negative mood for both husbands and wives. Marital satisfaction fully moderated this effect, reducing the strength of the association between one's own and one's partner's negative mood states. Spouses' positive moods were not correlated. As expected, within-couple coregulation coefficients were stronger when mood and cortisol were sampled in the early morning and evening, when spouses were together at home, than during the workday. The results suggest that spouses' fluctuations in negative mood and cortisol levels are linked over several days and that marital satisfaction may buffer spouses from their partners' negative mood or stress state.

    PMID: 20053034 [PubMed - in process]

    Environ Health Perspect. 2009 Nov;117(11):1713-7. Epub 2009 Jul 20.
    Saliva cortisol and exposure to aircraft noise in six European countries.

    Selander J, Bluhm G, Theorell T, Pershagen G, Babisch W, Seiffert I, Houthuijs D, Breugelmans O, Vigna-Taglianti F, Antoniotti MC, Velonakis E, Davou E, Dudley ML, Järup L; HYENA Consortium.
    Collaborators (23)
    Ohlander B, Thunberg E, de la Torre B, Swart W, Kwekkeboom J, Wölke G, Savigny P, Read J, Tan Y, Soogun Y, Katsouyanni K, Haralabidis A, Dimakopoulou K, Sourtzi P, Zahos Y, Velonakis V, Athanasopoulou A, Cadum E, Armitano A, Mathis F, Cianfrocca L, Tovo C, Ceriani MP.

    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

    BACKGROUND: Several studies show an association between exposure to aircraft or road traffic noise and cardiovascular effects, which may be mediated by a noise-induced release of stress hormones. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to assess saliva cortisol concentration in relation to exposure to aircraft noise. METHOD: A multicenter cross-sectional study, HYENA (Hypertension and Exposure to Noise near Airports), comprising 4,861 persons was carried out in six European countries. In a subgroup of 439 study participants, selected to enhance the contrast in exposure to aircraft noise, saliva cortisol was assessed three times (morning, lunch, and evening) during 1 day. RESULTS: We observed an elevation of 6.07 nmol/L [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.32-9.81 nmol/L] in morning saliva cortisol level in women exposed to aircraft noise at an average 24-hr sound level (L(Aeq,24h)) > 60 dB, compared with women exposed to L(Aeq,24h) < or = 50 dB, corresponding to an increase of 34%. Employment status appeared to modify the response. We found no association between noise exposure and saliva cortisol levels in men. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that exposure to aircraft noise increases morning saliva cortisol levels in women, which could be of relevance for noise-related cardiovascular effects.

    PMID: 20049122 [PubMed - in process]

    J Reprod Infant Psychol. 2009;27(2):143-167.
    Cortisol Reactivity, Maternal Sensitivity, and Infant Preference for Mother's Familiar Face and Rhyme in 6-Month-Old Infants.

    Thompson LA, Trevathan WR.

    New Mexico State University.

    This study investigated how cortisol (stress) reactivity and mothers' behavioral sensitivity affect familiarity preferences in 6-month-old infants. Relations between sensitivity and stress were explored using saliva samples taken from mothers and infants before, and 20-min after, two preferential looking experiments. Photographs and voice recordings from infants' mothers were incorporated into standard visual preference tasks. Sensitivity was assessed by determining the degree of behavioral synchrony between mother and infant from a 10-min interaction period preceding the preferential looking experiments. Results showed that decreasing infant cortisol reactivity and greater maternal sensitivity were associated with familiarity preferences for mother's face stimuli. For the experiment with voice stimuli, a sex difference was obtained in the relationship between the directionality of cortisol reactivity and familiarity preferences. Results are related to a parallel study with 3-month-old infants (Thompson & Trevathan, 2008), and issues are discussed in terms of infants' developing emotional independence from mother.

    PMID: 20046939 [PubMed]

    Ann Surg. 2010 Jan;251(1):171-6.
    The effects of stress and coping on surgical performance during simulations.

    Wetzel CM, Black SA, Hanna GB, Athanasiou T, Kneebone RL, Nestel D, Wolfe JH, Woloshynowych M.

    Department of Biosurgery, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.

    OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the effects of surgeons' stress levels and coping strategies on surgical performance during simulated operations. METHODS: Thirty surgeons carried out each a non-crisis and a crisis scenario of a simulated operation. Surgeons' stress levels were assessed by several measures: self-assessments and observer ratings of stress, heart rate, heart rate variability, and salivary cortisol. Coping strategies were explored qualitatively and quantified to a coping score. Experience in surgery was included as an additional predictor. Outcome measures consisted of technical surgical skills using Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skill (OSATS), nontechnical surgical skills using Observational Teamwork Assessment for Surgery (OTAS), and the quality of the operative end product using End Product Assessment (EPA). Uni- and multivariate linear regression were used to assess the independent effects of predictor variables on each performance measure. RESULTS: During the non-crisis simulation, a high coping score and experience significantly enhanced EPA (beta1, 0.279; 0.009-0.460; P= 0.04; beta2, 0.571; 4.328-12.669, P< 0.001; respectively). During the crisis simulation, a significant beneficial effect of the interaction of high experience and low stress on all performance measures was found (EPA: beta, 0.537; 2.079-8.543; OSATS: beta, 0.707; 8.708-17.860; OTAS: beta, 0.654; 13.090-30.483; P< 0.01). Coping significantly enhanced nontechnical skills (beta, 0.302; 0.117-1.624, P= 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians' stress and coping influenced surgical performance during simulated operations. Hence, these are critical factors for the quality of health care.

    PMID: 20032721 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    J Oral Sci. 2009 Dec;51(4):515-20.
    Dental anxiety and salivary cortisol levels before urgent dental care.

    Kanegane K, Penha SS, Munhoz CD, Rocha RG.

    Department of Stomatology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Dental anxiety is still prevalent, despite advances in treatment, and affects the utilization of health care services. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine if patients with different degrees of dental anxiety and pain undergoing emergency dental care have different stress reactions as measured by salivary cortisol. Seventy three patients completed the modified dental anxiety scale (MDAS), and described any previous dental traumatic experience. Their socio-demographic characteristics were also recorded. They also rated pain intensity on a 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS). A saliva sample was collected before the procedure, and analyzed by enzyme immunoassay. Thirty patients were dentally anxious and forty one complained of pain. In this sample, dental anxiety was not related to gender, age, educational level and family income; however, a previous traumatic event was related to dental anxiety. There was no association between salivary cortisol concentrations and gender or dental anxiety. Patients with pain showed higher cortisol levels. When gathering patient information, the dentist should note patients' negative dental experiences in order to provide more effective, less traumatic treatment.

    PMID: 20032602 [PubMed - in process]

    Psychol Aging. 2009 Dec;24(4):819-27.
    Interindividual differences and intraindividual variability in the cortisol awakening response: an examination of age and gender.

    Almeida DM, Piazza JR, Stawski RS.

    Department of Human Development and Family Studies, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA.

    This article shows age and gender differences in the magnitude and day-to-day variability of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) using a national sample of 1,143 adults who completed the second wave of the National Study of Daily Experiences, a part of the Midlife Development in the United States survey. Participants between the ages of 33 and 84 years completed 8 consecutive nightly interviews and provided 4 saliva samples (upon waking, 30 min after waking, before lunch, and before bed) on 4 consecutive interview days. Results revealed substantial day-to-day variability in the CAR as well as significant AgexGender interactions, indicating that although no systematic age-related differences emerged for women, the magnitude and day-to-day variability of the CAR increased with age among men. PsycINFO Database Record Copyright (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved

    PMID: 20025398 [PubMed - in process]
  15. victoria

    victoria New Member

    Thanks Rich~!
  16. victoria

    victoria New Member

  17. Juloo

    Juloo Member