Dr. Rosner asserts that spinal stenosis is part of the problem in chiari malformation & Milhort says skull is too small Google search = fluoride spinal stenosis The first website is: www.niams.nih.gov/hi/topics/spinalstenosis/spinal_sten.htm Nonarthritic Acquired Spinal Stenosis The following conditions that are not related to arthritis or degenerative disease are causes of acquired spinal stenosisrge comment: the above statement if false - fluoride IS related to arthritis!) Tumors of the spine are abnormal growths of soft tissue that may affect the spinal canal directly by inflammation or by growth of tissue into the canal. Tissue growth may lead to bone resorption (bone loss due to overactivity of certain bone cells) or displacement of bone and the eventual collapse of the supporting framework of the vertebral column. Trauma (accidents) may either dislocate the spine and the spinal canal or cause burst fractures that produce fragments of bone that penetrate the canal. Although surgery that involves fusion (union) of vertebrae may be skillfully performed, tissue swelling after surgery may place pressure on the spinal cord. Paget's disease of bone is a chronic (long-term) disorder that typically results in enlarged and deformed bones. Excessive bone breakdown and formation cause thick and fragile bone. As a result, bone pain, arthritis, noticeable deformities, and fractures can occur. The disease can affect any bone of the body, but is often found in the spine. The blood supply that feeds healthy nerve tissue may be diverted to the area of involved bone. Also, structural deformities of the involved vertebrae can cause narrowing of the spinal canal, producing a variety of neurological symptoms. Fluorosis is an excessive level of fluoride in the body. It may result from chronic inhalation of industrial dusts or gases contaminated with fluorides, prolonged ingestion of water containing large amounts of fluorides, or accidental ingestion of fluoride-containing insecticides. The condition may lead to calcified spinal ligaments or softened bones and to degenerative conditions like spinal stenosis. ===================================================== www.mayfieldclinic.com/PE/PE-STEN.HTM Stenosis can also be caused by other degenerative conditions such as spondylosis or spondylolisthesis; traumatic conditions such as tissue swelling after surgery, vertebral fracture, and dislocation; skeletal conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis or ankylosing spondylitis; or metabolic conditions such as Paget's disease or fluorosis, an excessive level of fluoride in the body ====================================================== Skeletal Fluorosis 126.96.36.199/vmu1.2/dmr/dmrdata/cme/fluorosis/Fluorosis.htm Pre skeletal stage: The duration of this stage may vary with the amount of fluoride daily ingested. Reportedly, it ranges from 10 to 30 years or even longer in endemic areas and from 10 to 15 years or longer in cases of industrial fluorosis (Singh and Jolly 1970; Franke et al 1970). It is usually free of any signs or symptoms in its early stages in endemic regions. The persons concerned may occasionally complain of pains in the small joints of the limbs and back, which are often mistaken for rheumatoid arthritis or ankylosing spondylitis. However, various reports from Europe and America suggest that there would be symptoms corresponding to gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, respiratory and visceral systems during this stage (Roholm 1937, Waldbott 1956; Petraborg 1974). The majority of these visceral symptoms may be due to allergy to fluoride in susceptible individuals or the effect of fluoride on the various target organs and these are nonspecific. Myelopathy: Patients suffering from fluorosis usually experience difficulty in walking because of the progressive weakness in the lower limbs. With the spreading of this weakness to the upper limbs, neurological disabilities occur that make the patient bedridden. Cranial nerve lesions: The skull is not much affected in fluorosis and basal cranial nerve foraminae are not usually encroached upon except at advanced stages of the disease (Singh et al 1963). Of the cranial nerves, the most frequently affected, in a quarter of the cases investigated, has been the eighth nerve. In all such cases calvarial changes caused by fluorosis are discernible. A progressive high frequency perceptive deafness is observed. Moreover, the bone conduction is affected more than air conduction. Neverthless, total deafness rarely occurs. It is, perhaps, the compression of the nerve in the sclerosed and narrowed auditary canal that accounts for the deafness in fluorosis (Rao and Siddiqui1962). Cerebrovascular accidents: Involvement of vertebrobasilar circulation caused by the compression of cervical osteophytes may occasionally occur(Singh and Jolly 1970). Increased calcifications of major vessels and disturbance of lipid metabolism that has been reported in fluorosis may bring about cerebrovascular accidents. The occurance of certain other neurological features like headache, tetaniform convulsions, mental depression, electroencephalographic disturbances in fluorosis have also been reported (Waldbott 1962). In fluorosis there is involvement of the rib cage, which causes restrictive lung disease. Vital capacity is reduced and FEV1/FVC ratio is above 85% and respiratory curve of flow- volume loop is flattened when the lungs are abnormally stiff in late stages due to restrictive ventilatory defect Radiology of fluorosis; The skull shows minimal changes in the calvarial bones. Sclerosis of bone at the sutural lines is one of the minor manifestations. However, the bones at the base show marked thickening. The petroclinoid ligaments show dense calcification. The occipital protuberance is very prominent and exostoses may be occasionally noted. Small osteophytes may encroach upon the foramina and produce cranial nerve palsies, as for instance, the 8th nerve. A tendency toward calcification may be noted in the falx cerebri. Osteosclerosis is a well-known effect of chronic fluoride intoxication, which can also cause osteoporosis and osteomalacia. It was Roholm (1937) who describing bone changes in industrial fluorosis suggested that in certain cases osteoporosis could occur. Computed tomography is the best imaging modality for visualization of bony pathology and it provides more details than plain skiagrams. Besides proper appreciation of the morphological anatomy, density of the various parts of the vertebra, it shows the exact location and direction of the osteophytes compressing the various neural elements and thus helps in proper surgical planning. Spinal canal and root canal stenosis are also better appreciated with CT scan MRI is superior to CT in the evaluation of cervical and upper dorsal area because of shoulder girdle artifact on CT image, but in demonstration of minute ossification of ligaments and spinal canal stenosis, CT is more useful. Surgical management of skeletal fluorosis with neurological manifestations: Neurological manifestations of fluorosis are mainly mechanical in nature although at advanced stages secondary vascular changes may supervene. Surgery obviously can be of little help to the alleviation of neurological deficits in view of the extensive prevalence of the disease. Surgical decompression is only possible in such of those early cases in which the compression is confined to a small segment of the vertebral column. But management of even these cases bristles with problems because of the marked fixity of the spine and rigidity of the thoracic cage. Moreover, the markedly reduced expansion of the chest and the vital capacity of the lungs tend to create postoperative chest complications. Furthermore, the intubation of the trachea during anesthesia becomes problematic because of the rigidity of the cervical spine and what is more because of the difficulty experienced even in positioning of the spine during surgery. That is why laminectomy, which has to be extensive in view of the disease being widespread, becomes difficult and burholes have to be used for removing laminae (Aggarwal and Singh 1964; Webb-Peploe and Bradely1966; Lester 1974; Reddy et al 1974; Naidu et al.1994). However, the results of surgical decompression of the spine undertaken in a select group of cases were found to be encouraging in the case of cervical region, but discouraging in that of dorsal region (Reddy et al 1974) which might be attributed to the pecularities of the anatomical features of these regions. =================================================== Does fluoride cause brain swelling? google search = fluoride swelling myelin www.sonic.net/kryptox/press/news98.htm Another presentation at the ISFR conference showed photographs of microscopic brain damage of rats which drank water with sodium fluoride (NaF). Dr. Chubek and co-workers found that the rats on the fluoridated water for 21 days had the highest concentrations of NaF and had brain cells that were smaller and mishapen. The myelin, a substance which surrounds certain axons and nerve fibers, was swollen: "A neuropathological study and computerized morphometric analyses revealed revealed a marked shrinkage of cerebellar granular and Purkinje cells, perivascular myelin swelling, and astroglia reaction, especially in the white matter of brains in the NaF-treated animals. Neuronal and myelin changes appeared to be more pronounced ... " groups.yahoo.com/group/doewatch/message/9374 Metabolic Pathogenesis Hypothesis for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Fibromyalgia In discussing chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and fibromyalgia (FM), as is true for other disorders, it is important to distinguish between the root cause (etiology), the development of the disease (pathogenesis) and the abnormal function of the body after the disease has become established (pathophysiology). The main emphasis of this paper is the pathogenesis of these disorders, but there is also discussion of some etiologies proposed by others. ....... ........In the case of neurons, the major use of ATP is to drive the sodium-potassium ATPase ion pumps. When these are short of ATP, they are unable to maintain the intracellular ion concentrations at the proper values. This leads to a change in the osmotic potential inside the cells, because the pumps normally move three sodium ions out when they bring two potassium ions in. The results are a decreased concentration of potassium inside the cells and an increased concentration of ions in general inside, and the latter causes the cells to absorb water and swell. This produces the observed edema, and may be the origin of the need to perform Chiari surgergy in some PWCs. Their brains may have have swollen too much for the available space allowed by the bones of the head and neck. Another effect of the lack of ATP for the ion pumps is that the membrane potential drops, and this reduces the threshold for firing action potentials (nerve impulses). This may be one of the origins of the increased sensation of pain in FM. (The other appears to be spinal in location, and appears to be associated with lowered serotonin.) www.xrefer.com/entry/463479 Sodium pump A mechanism by which sodium ions are transported out of a eukaryotic cell across the cell membrane. The process requires energy in the form of ATP, being a form of active transport </entry.jsp?xrefid=459425>. The most important type is sodium/potassium ATPase, which is a membrane protein that exchanges sodium ions (Na+) for potassium ions (K+), thus maintaining the differential concentrations of each ion across the cell membrane. This differential is vital to cellular function, e.g. in establishing the resting potential </entry.jsp?xrefid=463210> of a neurone.