Multi-Systemic Infections mechanism may be driving the immune response in Fibromyalgia? "Oxidative stress plays a dual role in infections. Free radicals protect against invading microorganisms, and they can also cause tissue damage during the resulting inflammation. In the process of infection, there is generation of reactive species by myeloperoxidase, NADPH oxidase, and nitric oxide synthase." See more here: Role of oxidative stress in infectious diseases Autoimmune Disease: The Infection Connection Dr. Martin Pall's NO/ONOO Hypothesis is a comprehensive explanation of how cellular oxidative stress illnesses mechanisms that control pathogens don't turn off in Fibromyalgia. " He suggests that the elevated Nitric Oxide and Peroxynitrite levels in these conditions is a shared root cause or factor, which is also comorbid in a large number of other well-accepted diseases, for example viral related illnesses, allergies and autoimmune conditions. This might also explain how some sufferers of one of these conditions may develop multiple instances of other inflammatory conditions concurrently, as they share a root driver. Autoimmune diseases such as Lupus and Rheumatoid Arthritis, are reported to have elevated iNOS activityand peroxynitrite, NF-kB and cytokine elevation at the sites of the autoimmune-related inflammation. These factors shall be examined in this article." The Unexplained Illnesses NO/ ONOO <---Please review "In these illnesses, short term stressors such as viral or bacterial infection, physical or psychological trauma or exposure to various toxic chemicals are thought to raise the Nitric Oxide (oxidant) levels in the body, exaccerbating their symptoms. The elevated Nitric Oxide levels react with Superoxide in the body, a byproduct of a number of bodily processes, to form the very harmful rogue oxidative species Peroxynitrite. The formation of Peroxynitrite causes a wide variety of oxidative damage to the body, particularly to mitochondrial enzymes, membranes and also hemoglobin, as well as destroying the protective antioxidant enzyme Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) (and other mechanisms for stimulating Superoxide production), thereby allowing Superoxide levels to build up, causing more of the Nitric Oxide to react with this Superoxide, thereby perpetuating or worsening the condition by producing more Peroxynitrite." See more here: Nitric Oxide Cycle, Superoxide and Peroxynitrite Explaining Unexplained Illnesses by Martin Pall, PhD ... Martin Pall's NO/ONOO Theory: Part II – Treatments Predicted to . Prohealth.com/Martin Pall's Theory If NO-synthases is making to much NO and depleting BH4. This can Lead to increased peroxynitrite. BH4 is also required to convert ammonia to urea in the Urea cycle. This domino effect may be a risk factor driving the hyperactive cytokine immune response seen in FM. Please reviewhow oxidative stress can impacted BH4 below. Nitric oxide and peroxynitrite in health and disease <--Please review Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) deficiency MTHFR.Net Dr Ben Lynch, Quote: "There are ways to increase BH4 safely – without supplementing directly with biopterin." "The biggest gains in increasing biopterin are:" "decreasing inflammation" " decreasing infections" – "both of these decrease neopterin which in turn increases biopterin formation" "When neopterin is elevated, biopterin typically is decreased." "decreasing ammonia levels" "adding methylfolate, iron, vitamin C, magnesium, b6 and others." "It is always best to support a cycle with the necessary precursors rather than supplementing directly with the end product." BH4 supplement for a1298c? - MTHFR.Net Elevated Nitric Oxide & Oxidative stress Dr. Jay Davidson NO ONOO Cycle The NO/ONOO-Cycle, a New Disease Paradigm, by Martin L. Pall Mitochondria: Redox Metabolism and Dysfunction Dr Jernigans PDF <-- The Ammonia Connection Ammonia - Neuro-Antitox II This ammonia-induced glutamine accumulation may cause dysfunction of astrocytes that leads to impairment.