Fluoride - Toxic Secret..... One to print.

Discussion in 'Fibromyalgia Main Forum' started by PatPalmer, May 21, 2003.

  1. PatPalmer

    PatPalmer New Member

    This is for "rge" in response to your reply to my post on Enzymes, and anyone else who is interested in this potential poison. - Could be a contributory factor to CFS/FM

    Flouride has always been a concern since giving my daughter flouride drops as a baby to strengthen her teeth. - Maybe this is one of the trigger points too....

    Pat.


    TOXIC SECRETS

    Fluoride & the A-Bomb Program

    During the ultra-secret Manhattan Project, a report was commissioned to assess the
    effect of fluoride on humans.
    That report was classified "secret" for reasons of "national security".


    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Some 50 years after United States authorities began adding fluoride to public water
    supplies to reduce cavities in children's teeth, recently discovered declassified
    government documents are shedding new light on the roots of that still-controversial
    public health measure, revealing a surprising connection between the use of fluoride
    and the dawning of the nuclear age.

    Today, two-thirds of US public drinking water is fluoridated. Many municipalities
    still resist the practice, disbelieving the government's assurances of safety.

    Since the days of World War II when the US prevailed by building the world's first
    atomic bomb, the nation's public health leaders have maintained that low doses of
    fluoride are safe for people and good for children's teeth.

    That safety verdict should now be re-examined in the light of hundreds of once-secret
    WWII-era documents obtained by these reporters [authors Griffiths and Bryson],
    including declassified papers of the Manhattan Project-the ultra-secret US military
    program that produced the atomic bomb.

    Fluoride was the key chemical in atomic bomb production, according to the
    documents. Massive quantities-millions of tons-were essential for the manufacture of
    bomb-grade uranium and plutonium for nuclear weapons throughout the Cold War.
    One of the most toxic chemicals known, fluoride emerged as the leading chemical
    health hazard of the US atomic bomb program, both for workers and for nearby
    communities, the documents reveal.

    Other revelations include:
    € Much of the original proof that fluoride is safe for humans in low doses was
    generated by A-bomb program scientists who had been secretly ordered to provide
    "evidence useful in litigation" against defence contractors for fluoride injury to
    citizens. The first lawsuits against the American A-bomb program were not over
    radiation, but over fluoride damage, the documents show.
    € Human studies were required. Bomb program researchers played a leading role in
    the design and implementation of the most extensive US study of the health effects of
    fluoridating public drinking water, conducted in Newburgh, New York, from 1945 to
    1955. Then, in a classified operation code-named "Program F", they secretly gathered
    and analysed blood and tissue samples from Newburgh citizens with the cooperation
    of New York State Health Department personnel.
    € The original, secret version (obtained by these reporters) of a study published by
    Program F scientists in the August 1948 Journal of the American Dental Association1
    shows that evidence of adverse health effects from fluoride was censored by the US
    Atomic Energy Commission (AEC)-considered the most powerful of Cold War
    agencies-for reasons of "national security".
    € The bomb program's fluoride safety studies were conducted at the University of
    Rochester-site of one of the most notorious human radiation experiments of the Cold
    War, in which unsuspecting hospital patients were injected with toxic doses of
    radioactive plutonium. The fluoride studies were conducted with the same ethical
    mindset, in which "national security" was paramount.



    EVIDENCE OF FLUORIDE'S ADVERSE HEALTH EFFECTS

    The US Government's conflict of interest and its motive to prove fluoride safe in the
    furious debate over water fluoridation since the 1950s has only now been made clear
    to the general public, let alone to civilian researchers, health professionals and
    journalists. The declassified documents resonate with a growing body of scientific
    evidence and a chorus of questions about the health effects of fluoride in the
    environment.

    Human exposure to fluoride has mushroomed since World War II, due not only to
    fluoridated water and toothpaste but to environmental pollution by major industries,
    from aluminium to pesticides, where fluoride is a critical industrial chemical as well
    as a waste by-product.

    The impact can be seen literally in the smiles of our children. Large numbers (up to
    80 per cent in some cities) of young Americans now have dental fluorosis, the first
    visible sign of excessive fluoride exposure according to the US National Research
    Council. (The signs are whitish flecks or spots, particularly on the front teeth, or dark
    spots or stripes in more severe cases.)

    Less known to the public is that fluoride also accumulates in bones. "The teeth are
    windows to what's happening in the bones," explained Paul Connett, Professor of
    Chemistry at St Lawrence University, New York, to these reporters. In recent years,
    paediatric bone specialists have expressed alarm about an increase in stress fractures
    among young people in the US. Connett and other scientists are concerned that
    fluoride-linked to bone damage in studies since the 1930s-may be a contributing
    factor.

    The declassified documents add urgency: much of the original 'proof ' that low-dose
    fluoride is safe for children's bones came from US bomb program scientists,
    according to this investigation.

    Now, researchers who have reviewed these declassified documents fear that Cold
    War national security considerations may have prevented objective scientific
    evaluation of vital public health questions concerning fluoride.

    "Information was buried," concludes Dr Phyllis Mullenix, former head of toxicology
    at Forsyth Dental Center in Boston and now a critic of fluoridation. Animal studies
    which Mullenix and co-workers conducted at Forsyth in the early 1990s indicated that
    fluoride was a powerful central nervous system (CNS) toxin and might adversely
    affect human brain functioning even at low doses. (New epidemiological evidence
    from China adds support, showing a correlation between low-dose fluoride exposure
    and diminished IQ in children.) Mullenix's results were published in 1995 in a
    reputable peer-reviewed scientific journal.2

    During her investigation, Mullenix was astonished to discover there had been
    virtually no previous US studies of fluoride's effects on the human brain. Then, her
    application for a grant to continue her CNS research was turned down by the US
    National Institutes of Health (NIH), when an NIH panel flatly told her that "fluoride
    does not have central nervous system effects".

    Declassified documents of the US atomic bomb program indicate otherwise. A
    Manhattan Project memorandum of 29 April 1944 states: "Clinical evidence suggests
    that uranium hexafluoride may have a rather marked central nervous system effect...
    It seems most likely that the F [code for fluoride] component rather than the T [code
    for uranium] is the causative factor." The memo, from a captain in the medical corps,
    is stamped SECRET and is addressed to Colonel Stafford Warren, head of the
    Manhattan Project's Medical Section. Colonel Warren is asked to approve a program
    of animal research on CNS effects. "Since work with these compounds is essential, it
    will be necessary to know in advance what mental effects may occur after exposure...
    This is important not only to protect a given individual, but also to prevent a confused
    workman from injuring others by improperly performing his duties."

    On the same day, Colonel Warren approved the CNS research program. This was in
    1944, at the height of World War II and the US nation's race to build the world's first
    atomic bomb.

    For research on fluoride's CNS effects to be approved at such a momentous time, the
    supporting evidence set forth in the proposal forwarded along with the memo must
    have been persuasive. The proposal, however, is missing from the files at the US
    National Archives. "If you find the memos but the document they refer to is missing,
    it's probably still classified," said Charles Reeves, chief librarian at the Atlanta branch
    of the US National Archives and Records Administration where the memos were
    found. Similarly, no results of the Manhattan Project's fluoride CNS research could be
    found in the files.

    After reviewing the memos, Mullenix declared herself "flabbergasted". "How could I
    be told by NIH that fluoride has no central nervous system effects, when these
    documents were sitting there all the time?" She reasons that the Manhattan Project did
    do fluoride CNS studies: "That kind of warning, that fluoride workers might be a
    danger to the bomb program by improperly performing their duties-I can't imagine
    that would be ignored." But she suggests that the results were buried because of the
    difficult legal and public relations problems they might create for the government.

    The author of the 1944 CNS research proposal attached to the 29 April memo was Dr
    Harold C. Hodge-at the time, chief of fluoride toxicology studies for the University of
    Rochester division of the Manhattan Project.

    Nearly 50 years later at the Forsyth Dental Center in Boston, Dr Mullenix was
    introduced to a gently ambling elderly man, brought in to serve as a consultant on her
    CNS research. This man was Harold C. Hodge. By then, Hodge had achieved status
    emeritus as a world authority on fluoride safety. "But even though he was supposed to
    be helping me," said Mullenix, "he never once mentioned the CNS work he had done
    for the Manhattan Project."

    The "black hole" in fluoride CNS research since the days of the Manhattan Project is
    unacceptable to Mullenix who refuses to abandon the issue. "There is so much
    fluoride exposure now, and we simply do not know what it is doing. You can't just
    walk away from this."

    Dr Antonio Noronha, an NIH scientific review advisor familiar with Dr Mullenix's
    grant request, told us that her proposal was rejected by a scientific peer-review group.
    He termed her claim of institutional bias against fluoride CNS research "far-fetched".
    He then added: "We strive very hard at NIH to make sure politics does not enter the
    picture."


    THE NEW JERSEY FLUORIDE POLLUTION INCIDENT

    The documentary trail begins at the height of World War II, in 1944, when a severe
    pollution incident occurred downwind of the E.I. DuPont de Nemours Company
    chemical factory in Deepwater, New Jersey. The factory was then producing millions
    of pounds of fluoride for the Manhattan Project whose scientists were racing to
    produce the world's first atomic bomb.

    The farms downwind in Gloucester and Salem counties were famous for their
    high-quality produce. Their peaches went directly to the Waldorf Astoria Hotel in
    New York City; their tomatoes were bought up by Campbell's Soup.

    But in the summer of 1944 the farmers began reporting that their crops were blighted:
    "Something is burning up the peach crops around here." They said that poultry died
    after an all-night thunderstorm, and that farm workers who ate produce they'd picked
    would sometimes vomit all night and into the next day.

    "I remember our horses looked sick and were too stiff to work," Mildred Giordano, a
    teenager at the time, told these reporters. Some cows were so crippled that they could
    not stand up; they could only graze by crawling on their bellies.

    The account was confirmed in taped interviews with Philip Sadtler (shortly before he
    died), of Sadtler Laboratories of Philadelphia, one of the nation's oldest chemical
    consulting firms. Sadtler had personally conducted the initial investigation of the
    damage.

    Although the farmers did not know it, the attention of the Manhattan Project and the
    federal government was rivetted on the New Jersey incident, according to once-secret
    documents obtained by these reporters.

    A memo, dated 27 August 1945, from Manhattan Project chief Major-General Leslie
    R. Groves to the Commanding General of Army Service Forces at the Pentagon,
    concerns the investigation of crop damage at Lower Penns Neck, New Jersey. It
    states: "At the request of the Secretary of War, the Department of Agriculture has
    agreed to cooperate in investigating complaints of crop damage attributed...to fumes
    from a plant operated in connection with the Manhattan Project."

    After the war's end, Dr Harold C. Hodge, the Manhattan Project's chief of fluoride
    toxicology studies, worriedly wrote in a secret memo (1 March 1946) to his boss,
    Colonel Stafford L. Warren, chief of the Medical Section, about "problems associated
    with the question of fluoride contamination of the atmosphere in a certain section of
    New Jersey".

    "There seem to be four distinct (though related) problems:
    "1. A question of injury of the peach crop in 1944.
    "2. A report of extraordinary fluoride content of vegetables grown in this area.
    "3. A report of abnormally high fluoride content in the blood of human individuals
    residing in this area.
    "4. A report raising the question of serious poisoning of horses and cattle in this area."




    FLUORIDE DAMAGE: THE FIRST LAWSUITS

    The New Jersey farmers waited until the war was over before suing DuPont and the
    Manhattan Project for fluoride damage-reportedly the first lawsuits against the US
    atomic bomb program. Although seemingly trivial, the lawsuits shook the
    government, the secret documents reveal.

    Under the personal direction of Major-General Groves, secret meetings were
    convened in Washington, with compulsory attendance by scores of scientists and
    officials from the US War Department, the Manhattan Project, the Food and Drug
    Administration, the Agriculture and Justice departments, the US Army's Chemical
    Warfare Service and Edgewood Arsenal, the Bureau of Standards, as well as lawyers
    from DuPont. Declassified memos of the meetings reveal a secret mobilisation of the
    full forces of the government to defeat the New Jersey farmers.

    In a memo (2 May 1946) copied to General Groves, Manhattan Project Lt Colonel
    Cooper B. Rhodes notes that these agencies "are making scientific investigations to
    obtain evidence which may be used to protect the interest of the Government at the
    trial of the suits brought by owners of peach orchards in...New Jersey".

    Regarding these lawsuits, General Groves wrote to the Chairman of the Senate
    Special Committee on Atomic Energy in a memo of 28 February 1946, advising that
    "the Department of Justice is cooperating in the defense of these suits".

    Why the national security emergency over a few lawsuits by New Jersey farmers? In
    1946 the United States began full-scale production of atomic bombs. No other nation
    had yet tested a nuclear weapon, and the A-bomb was seen as crucial for US
    leadership of the postwar world. The New Jersey fluoride lawsuits were a serious
    roadblock to that strategy. "The specter of endless lawsuits haunted the military,"
    wrote Lansing Lamont in Day of Trinity, his acclaimed book about the first atomic
    bomb test.3

    "If the farmers won, it would open the door to further suits which might impede the
    bomb program's ability to use fluoride," commented Jacqueline Kittrell, a Tennessee
    public interest lawyer who examined the declassified fluoride documents. (Kittrell
    specialises in nuclear-related litigation and has represented plaintiffs in several
    human radiation experiment cases.) "The reports of human injury were especially
    threatening because of the potential for enormous settlements-not to mention the PR
    problem," she added.

    Indeed, DuPont was particularly concerned about the "possible psychologic reaction"
    to the New Jersey pollution incident, according to a secret Manhattan Project memo
    of 1 March 1946. Facing a threat from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to
    embargo the region's produce because of "high fluoride content", DuPont dispatched
    its lawyers to the FDA offices in Washington, DC, where an agitated meeting ensued.
    According to a memo sent next day to General Groves, DuPont's lawyer argued that
    "in view of the pending suits...any action by the Food and Drug
    Administration...would have a serious effect on the DuPont Company and would
    create a bad public relations situation". After the meeting adjourned, Manhattan
    Project Captain John Davies approached the FDA's Food Division chief and
    "impressed upon Dr White the substantial interest which the Government had in
    claims which might arise as a result of action which might be taken by the Food and
    Drug Administration".

    There was no embargo. Instead, according to General Groves' memo of 27 August
    1946, new tests for fluoride in the New Jersey area were to be conducted not by the
    Department of Agriculture but by the US Army's Chemical Warfare Service
    (CWS)-because "work done by the Chemical Warfare Service would carry the
    greatest weight as evidence if...lawsuits are started by the complainants".

    Meanwhile, the public relations problem remained unresolved: local citizens were in
    a panic about fluoride. The farmers' spokesman, Willard B. Kille, was personally
    invited to dine with General Groves (then known as "the man who built the atomic
    bomb") at his office at the War Department on 26 March 1946. Although diagnosed
    by his doctor as having fluoride poisoning, Kille departed the luncheon convinced of
    the government's good faith. Next day he wrote to the general, expressing his wish
    that the other farmers could have been present so that "they too could come away with
    the feeling that their interests in this particular matter were being safeguarded by men
    of the very highest type whose integrity they could not question".

    A broader solution to the public relations problem was suggested by Manhattan
    Project chief fluoride toxicologist Harold C. Hodge in a second secret memo (1 May
    1946) to Medical Section chief Colonel Warren: "Would there be any use in making
    attempts to counteract the local fear of fluoride on the part of residents of Salem and
    Gloucester counties through lectures on F toxicology and perhaps the usefulness of F
    in tooth health?" Such lectures were indeed given, not only to New Jersey citizens but
    to the rest of the nation throughout the Cold War.

    The New Jersey farmers' lawsuits were ultimately stymied by the government's refusal
    to reveal the key piece of information that would have settled the case: how much
    fluoride DuPont had vented into the atmosphere during the war. "Disclosure would be
    injurious to the military security of the United States," Manhattan Project Major C. A.
    Taney, Jr, had written in a memo soon after the war's end (24 September 1945).

    The farmers were pacified with token financial settlements, according to interviews
    with descendants still living in the area.

    "All we knew is that DuPont released some chemical that burned up all the peach
    trees around here," recalled Angelo Giordano whose father James was one of the
    original plaintiffs. "The trees were no good after that, so we had to give up on the
    peaches." Their horses and cows acted and walked stiffly, recalled his sister Mildred.
    "Could any of that have been the fluoride?" she asked. (The symptoms she detailed
    are cardinal signs of fluoride toxicity, according to veterinary toxicologists.) The
    Giordano family has also been plagued by bone and joint problems, Mildred added.
    Recalling the settlement received by the family, Angelo Giordano told these reporters
    that his father said he "got about $200".

    The farmers were stonewalled in their search for information about fluoride's effects
    on their health, and their complaints have long since been forgotten. But they
    unknowingly left their imprint on history: their complaints of injury to their health
    reverberated through the corridors of power in Washington and triggered intensive,
    secret, bomb program research on the health effects of fluoride.

    "PROGRAM F": SECRET FLUORIDE RESEARCH

    A secret memo (2 May 1946) to General Groves from Manhattan Project Lt Colonel
    Rhodes states: "Because of complaints that animals and humans have been injured by
    hydrogen fluoride fumes in [the New Jersey] area, although there are no pending suits
    involving such claims, the University of Rochester is conducting experiments to
    determine the toxic effect of fluoride."

    Much of the proof of fluoride's alleged safety in low doses rests on the postwar work
    done at the University of Rochester in anticipation of lawsuits against the bomb
    program for human injury.

    For the top-secret Manhattan Project to delegate fluoride safety studies to the
    University of Rochester was not surprising. During WWII the US Federal
    Government became involved for the first time in large-scale funding of scientific
    research at government-owned labs and private colleges. Those early spending
    priorities were shaped by the nation's often-secret military needs.

    The prestigious upstate New York college in particular had housed a key wartime
    division of the Manhattan Project to study the health effects of the new "special
    materials" such as uranium, plutonium, beryllium and fluoride which were being used
    in making the atomic bomb. That work continued after the war, with millions of
    dollars flowing from the Manhattan Project and its successor organisation, the Atomic
    Energy Commission (AEC). (Indeed, the bomb left an indelible imprint on all of US
    science in the late 1940s and 1950s. Up to 90 per cent of all federal funds for
    university research came from either the Department of Defense or the AEC in this
    period, according to Noam Chomsky in his 1997 book, The Cold War and the
    University.4)

    The University of Rochester Medical School became a revolving door for senior
    bomb-program scientists. The postwar faculty included Stafford Warren, the top
    medical officer of the Manhattan Project, and Harold C. Hodge, chief of fluoride
    research for the bomb program.

    But this marriage of military secrecy and medical science bore deformed offspring.
    The University of Rochester's classified fluoride studies, code-named "Program F",
    were started during the war and continued up until the early 1950s. They were
    conducted at its Atomic Energy Project (AEP), a top-secret facility funded by the
    AEC and housed at Strong Memorial Hospital. It was there that one of the most
    notorious human radiation experiments of the Cold War took place, in which
    unsuspecting hospital patients were injected with toxic doses of radioactive
    plutonium. Revelation of this experiment-in a Pulitzer Prize&endash;winning account
    by Eileen Welsome-led to a 1995 US presidential investigation and a
    multimillion-dollar cash settlement for victims.

    Program F was not about children's teeth. It grew directly out of litigation against the
    bomb program, and its main purpose was to furnish scientific ammunition which the
    government and its nuclear contractors could use to defeat lawsuits for human injury.
    Program F's director was none other than Dr Harold C. Hodge- who led the Manhattan
    Project investigation of alleged human injury in the New Jersey fluoride pollution
    incident.

    Program F's purpose is spelled out in a classified 1948 report. It reads: "To supply
    evidence useful in the litigation arising from an alleged loss of a fruit crop several
    years ago, a number of problems have been opened. Since excessive blood-fluoride
    levels were reported in human residents of the same area, our principal effort has
    been devoted to describing the relationship of blood fluorides to toxic effects."

    The litigation referred to and the claims of human injury were of course against the
    bomb program and its contractors. Thus the purpose of Program F was to obtain
    evidence useful in litigation against the bomb program. The research was being
    conducted by the defendants.

    The potential conflict of interest is clear. If lower dose ranges were found hazardous
    by Program F, this might have opened the bomb program and its contractors to public
    outcry and lawsuits for injury to human health.

    Lawyer Jacqueline Kittrell commented further: "This and other documents indicate
    that the University of Rochester's fluoride research grew out of the New Jersey
    lawsuits and was performed in anticipation of lawsuits against the bomb program for
    human injury. Studies undertaken for litigation purposes by the defendants would not
    be considered scientifically acceptable today because of their inherent bias to prove
    the chemical safe."

    Unfortunately, much of the proof of fluoride's safety rests on the work performed by
    Program F scientists at the University of Rochester. During the postwar period, that
    university emerged as the leading academic centre for establishing the safety of
    fluoride as well as its effectiveness in reducing tooth decay, according to Rochester
    Dental School spokesperson William H. Bowen, MD. The key figure in this research,
    Bowen said, was Dr Harold C. Hodge-who also became a leading national proponent
    of fluoridating public drinking water.

    THE A-BOMB AND WATER FLUORIDATION

    Program F's interest in water fluoridation was not just "to counteract the local fear of
    fluoride on the part of residents", as Hodge had earlier written to Colonel Warren.
    The bomb program required human studies of fluoride's effects, just as it needed
    human studies of plutonium's effects. Adding fluoride to public water supplies
    provided one opportunity.

    Bomb-program scientists played a prominent, if unpublicised, role in the nation's
    first-planned water fluoridation experiment in Newburgh, New York. The Newburgh
    Demonstration Project is considered the most extensive study of the health effects of
    fluoridation, supplying much of the evidence that low doses are allegedly safe for
    children's bones and good for their teeth.

    Planning began in 1943 with the appointment of a special New York State Health
    Department committee to study the advisability of adding fluoride to Newburgh's
    drinking water. The chairman of the committee was, again, Dr Harold C. Hodge, then
    chief of fluoride toxicity studies for the Manhattan Project. Subsequent members of
    the committee included Henry L. Barnett, a captain in the Project's Medical Section,
    and John W. Fertig, in 1944 with the Office of Scientific Research and
    Development-the super-secret Pentagon group which sired the Manhattan Project.
    Their military affiliations were kept secret. Hodge was described as a pharmacologist,
    Barnett as a paediatrician. Placed in charge of the Newburgh project was David B.
    Ast, chief dental officer of the New York State Health Department. Ast had
    participated in a key secret wartime conference on fluoride, held by the Manhattan
    Project in January 1944, and later worked with Dr Hodge on the Project's
    investigation of human injury in the New Jersey incident, according to once-secret
    memos.

    The committee recommended that Newburgh be fluoridated. It selected the types of
    medical studies to be done, and it also "provided expert guidance" for the duration of
    the experiment.

    The key question to be answered was: "Are there any cumulative effects, beneficial or
    otherwise, on tissues and organs other than the teeth, of long-continued ingestion of
    such small concentrations?" According to the declassified documents, this was also
    key information sought by the bomb program. In fact, the program would require
    "long-continued" exposure of workers and communities to fluoride throughout the
    Cold War.

    In May 1945, Newburgh's water was fluoridated, and over the next 10 years its
    residents were studied by the New York State Health Department.

    In tandem, Program F conducted its own secret studies, focusing on the amounts of
    fluoride Newburgh citizens retained in their blood and tissues-information called for
    by the bomb program in connection with litigation. "Possible toxic effects of fluoride
    were in the forefront of consideration," the advisory committee stated. Health
    department personnel cooperated, shipping blood and placenta samples to the
    Program F team at the University of Rochester. The samples were collected by Dr
    David B. Overton, the department's chief of paediatric studies at Newburgh.

    The final report of the Newburgh Demonstration Project, published in 1956 in the
    Journal of the American Dental Association,5 concluded that "small concentrations"
    of fluoride were safe for US citizens. The biological proof, "based on work
    performed...at the University of Rochester Atomic Energy Project", was delivered by
    Dr Hodge.

    Today, news that scientists from the A-bomb program secretly shaped and guided the
    Newburgh fluoridation experiment and studied the citizens' blood and tissue samples
    is greeted with incredulity.

    "I'm shocked...beyond words," said present-day Newburgh Mayor Audrey Carey,
    commenting on these reporters' findings. "It reminds me of the Tuskegee experiment
    that was done on syphilis patients down in Alabama."

    As a child in the early 1950s, Mayor Carey was taken to the old Newburgh firehouse
    on Broadway which housed the public health clinic. There, doctors from the
    Newburgh fluoridation project studied her teeth, and a peculiar fusion of two
    fingerbones on her left hand which she's had since birth. (Carey said that her
    granddaughter has white dental-fluorosis marks on her front teeth.)

    Mayor Carey wants answers from the government about the secret history of fluoride
    and the Newburgh fluoridation experiment. "I absolutely want to pursue it," she said.
    "It is appalling to do any kind of experimentation and study without people's
    knowledge and permission."

    When contacted by these reporters, the now 95-year-old David B. Ast, former director
    of the Newburgh experiment, said he was unaware that Manhattan Project scientists
    were involved. "If I had known, I would have been certainly investigating why, and
    what the connection was," he said. Did he know that blood and placenta samples from
    Newburgh were being sent to bomb-program researchers at the University of
    Rochester? "I was not aware of it," Ast replied. Did he recall participating in the
    Manhattan Project's secret wartime conference on fluoride in January 1944, or going
    to New Jersey with Dr Hodge to investigate human injury in the DuPont case, as
    secret memos state? He told these reporters he had no recollection of any such events.

    Bob Loeb, a spokesperson for the University of Rochester Medical Center, confirmed
    that blood and tissue samples from Newburgh had been tested by the University's Dr
    Hodge. On the ethics of secretly studying US citizens to obtain information useful in
    litigation against the A-bomb program, he said: "That's a question we cannot answer."
    He referred inquiries to the US Department of Energy (DOE), successor to the
    Atomic Energy Commission.

    Jayne Brady, a spokesperson for the Department of Energy in Washington confirmed
    that a review of DOE files indicated that a "significant reason" for fluoride
    experiments conducted at the University of Rochester after the war was "impending
    litigation between the DuPont company and residents of New Jersey areas". However,
    she added: "DOE has found no documents to indicate that fluoride research was done
    to protect the Manhattan Project or its contractors from lawsuits."

    On Manhattan Project involvement in Newburgh, Brady stated: "Nothing that we have
    suggests that the DOE or predecessor agencies-especially the Manhattan
    Project-authorised fluoride experiments to be performed on children in the 1940s."

    When told that these reporters have several documents that directly tie the AEP-the
    Manhattan Project's successor agency at the University of Rochester-to the Newburgh
    experiment, DOE spokesperson Brady later conceded her study was confined to "the
    available universe" of documents.

    Two days later, Brady faxed a statement for clarification. "My search only involved
    the documents that we collected as part of our human radiation experiments project;
    fluoride was not part of our research effort."

    "Most significantly," the statement continued, "relevant documents may be in a
    classified collection at the DOE Oak Ridge National Laboratory, known as the
    Records Holding Task Group. This collection consists entirely of classified
    documents removed from other files for the purpose of classified document
    accountability many years ago [and was] a rich source of documents for the human
    radiation experiments projects."


    SUPPRESSION OF ADVERSE HEALTH FINDINGS
    The crucial question arising from the investigation is whether adverse health findings
    from Newburgh and other bomb-program fluoride studies were suppressed. All
    AEC-funded studies had to be declassified before publication in civilian medical and
    dental journals. Where are the original classified versions?

    The transcript of one of the major secret scientific conferences of World War II-on
    "fluoride metabolism"-is missing from the files of the US National Archives and is
    "probably still classified", according to the librarian. Participants in the January 1944
    conference included key figures who promoted the safety of fluoride and water
    fluoridation to the public after the war: Harold Hodge of the Manhattan Project,
    David B. Ast of the Newburgh Demonstration Project, and US Public Health Service
    dentist H. Trendley Dean, popularly known as "the father of fluoridation".

    A WWII Manhattan Project c lassified report (25 July 1944) on water fluoridation is
    missing from the files of the University of Rochester Atomic Energy Project, the US
    National Archives, and the Nuclear Repository at the University of Tennessee,
    Knoxville. The next four numerically consecutive documents are also missing, while
    the remainder of the "M-1500 series" is present.

    "Either those documents are still classified, or they've been 'disappeared' by the
    government," said Clifford Honicker, Executive Director of the American
    Environmental Health Studies Project in Knoxville, Tennessee, which provided key
    evidence in the public exposure and prosecution of US human radiation experiments.

    Seven pages have been cut out of a 1947 Rochester bomb project notebook entitled
    "DuPont Litigation". "Most unusual," commented the medical school's chief archivist,
    Chris Hoolihan.

    Similarly, Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests lodged by these reporters over
    a year ago with the DOE for hundreds of classified fluoride reports have failed to
    dislodge any. "We're behind," explained Amy Rothrock, chief FOIA officer at Oak
    Ridge National Laboratories.

    So, has information been suppressed? These reporters made what appears to be the
    first discovery of the original classified version of a fluoride safety study by bomb
    program scientists. A censored version of this study was later published in the August
    1948 Journal of the American Dental Association.6 Comparison of the secret version
    with the published version indicates that the US AEC did censor damaging
    information on fluoride-to the point of tragicomedy. This was a study of the dental
    and physical health of workers in a factory producing fluoride for the A-bomb
    program; it was conducted by a team of dentists from the Manhattan Project.

    € The secret version reports that most of the men had no teeth left. The published
    version reports only that the men had fewer cavities.
    € The secret version says the men had to wear rubber boots because the fluoride
    fumes disintegrated the nails in their shoes. The published version does not mention
    this.
    € The secret version says the fluoride may have acted similarly on the men's teeth,
    contributing to their toothlessness. The published version omits this statement and
    concludes that "the men were unusually healthy, judged from both a medical and
    dental point of view".


    After comparing the secret and published versions of the censored study, toxicologist
    Phyllis Mullenix commented: "This makes me ashamed to be a scientist." Of other
    Cold War&endash;era fluoride safety studies, she asked: "Were they all done like
    this?"


    Asked for comment on the early links of the Manhattan Project to water fluoridation,
    Dr Harold Slavkin, Director of the National Institute for Dental Research-the US
    agency which today funds fluoride research-said: "I wasn't aware of any input from
    the Atomic Energy Commission." Nevertheless, he insisted that fluoride's efficacy and
    safety in the prevention of dental cavities over the last 50 years is well proved. "The
    motivation of a scientist is often different from the outcome," he reflected. "I do not
    hold a prejudice about where the knowledge comes from."



    Endnotes:
    1. Dale, Peter P., and McCauley, H. B, "Dental Conditions in Workers Chronically
    Exposed to Dilute and Anhydrous Hydrofluoric Acid", Journal of the American
    Dental Association, vol. 37, no. 2, August 1948, pp. 131-140. Note that Dale and
    McCauley were both Manhattan Project and, later, Program F personnel; they also
    authored the secret Manhattan Project paper.
    2. Mullenix, Phyllis et al., "Neurotoxicity of Sodium Fluoride in Rats",
    Neurotoxicology and Teratology, vol. 17, no. 2, 1995, pp. 169-177.
    3. Lamont, Lansing, Day of Trinity, Atheneum, New York City, 1965.
    4. Chomsky, Noam, The Cold War and the University, New Press, New York City,
    1997 (distributed by W.W. Norton & Co. Inc., NYC).
    5. Hodge, H. C., "Fluoride metabolism: its significance in water fluoridation", in
    "Newburgh-Kingston caries-fluorine study: final report", Journal of the American
    Dental Association, vol. 52, March 1956.
    6. Dale and McCauley, ibid.


    About the Authors:
    Joel Griffiths is a medical writer based in New York City. He is the author of a book
    on radiation hazards that included one of the first revelations of human radiation
    experiments, and has contributed numerous articles to medical journals and popular
    publications.
    Chris Bryson, who holds a Master's degree in journalism, is an independent reporter
    for BBC Radio, ABC-TV and public television in New York City, and writes for a
    variety of publications.
    The authors wish to thank Clifford Honicker, Executive Director of the American
    Environmental Health Studies Project, Knoxville, TN, for his indispensable archival
    research.


    Resources:
    Copies of 155 pages of supporting documents, including all the declassified papers
    referred to in this article, can be obtained from the following contacts for a small fee
    to cover copying and postage:
    € Australia: Australian Fluoridation News, GPO Box 935G, Melbourne, Victoria
    3001, phone (03) 9592 5088, fax (03) 9592 4544.
    € New Zealand: New Zealand Pure Water Association, 278 Dickson Road, Papamoa,
    Bay of Plenty, phone (07) 542 0499.
    € UK: National Pure Water Association of the UK, 12 Dennington Lane,
    Crigglestone, Wakefield, WF4 3ET, phone 01924 254433, fax 01924 242380.
    € USA: Waste Not newsletter, 82 Judson Street, Canton, NY 13617, phone (315) 379
    9200, fax (315) 379 0448, e-mail wastenot@northnet.org.








  2. rge

    rge New Member

    Calcium fluoride is what is in naturally F- water.

    India has HUGE problems with this
    Just do a google search on fluoride and India and you will see the devastating effects that it causes

    Ron

    Fluoride Poisoning support group at Yahoo Groups
    The ONLY one on the web!
  3. Ellie5748

    Ellie5748 New Member

    My brother and I have had countless talks about this, but it is the first time I've seen it in black & white. My mother raised myself and two brother's w/o the help of my father, and we used to have to get everything from the health dept. Apparently, we got more than we thought. I wonder if this has anything to do with all of our health problems? One brother had 2 failed back surgeries, and the other one has RSD. I have Fibro and RA. Horribly scary.

    Regards,

    Ellen
  4. debbiem31

    debbiem31 New Member

    for posting this. It's very scary indeed to think of the harm the gov't would do to us and then cover it up. When my baby was on formula, we had no choice but to use the city water to mix with. He had black stripes running through his two front teeth. His doc and my dentist didn't know what this was. Soon after he stopped formula and went on to table foods, the lines went away. He does still have a couple spots on his top teeth, though. He's 2 years old. Now I can only assume that it was the fluoride in the water we drink.

    My question is, what are we supposed to do about it? Water is supposed to be so healthy for you, but my city adds fluoride to our water. Is there any way to escape this?
  5. PatPalmer

    PatPalmer New Member

    Debbie, - Only option is to either spend a fortune on the bottled type or move into the mountains for pure stream water.

    It seems we are going to be gotten by something no matter which way we turn.

    I have to bury my head in the sand so to speak, as most food is sprayed with pesticides, can`t walk down the street without having to inhale traffic fumes, and can`t drink the tap water......

    This is depressing, off to pour a drink of a different kind....

    Pat.
  6. Notonline

    Notonline New Member

    .....and I did print this one out!

    Last year my son's Dr. wanted him on floride supplements as we were unsure as to floride content in our water. She actually got extremely nasty with me because I refused, but I had read some of the adverse affects on the web previously. We do have city floridated water anyways (although I prefer bottled), he has had no cavities, so I'm not sure what her logic was on this.

    I fired her recently, and my son is due his next check-up with his new Dr. next month...it is so tough finding a good Dr. anymore, you have to stay informed just to survive.

    I really look forward to reading your posts, I'm always learning something new!!!

    Danny
  7. JaciBart

    JaciBart Member

    I feel like all of my bones are worn out, I have bad bone pain most of the time.

    I have wondered for a while if this is related to the fibro as everything else is.

    Jaci