Low Adrenal Function / Adrenal Insufficiency

Discussion in 'Fibromyalgia Main Forum' started by hope2001, Mar 22, 2006.

  1. hope2001

    hope2001 New Member


    The adrenal glands, located above the kidney, often become 'exhausted' as a result of the constant demands placed upon them. An individual with adrenal exhaustion will usually suffer from chronic fatigue, may complain of feeling stressed-out or anxious, and will typically have a reduced resistance to allergies and infection.

    The adrenal glands secrete several important hormones that help maintain the balance of many body functions. Stress, fasting, temperature changes, infections, drugs, and exercise all stimulate the adrenals to release their hormones. When the adrenals release too few or too many hormones, the body responds differently to the everyday stresses of life.

    The adrenal cortex is involved in the production of glucocorticoids (such as cortisol i.e. hydrocortisone), mineralocorticoids (aldosterone) and androgens such as androstenedione and DHEA. A mild to moderate adrenocortical deficiency can substantially reduce your quality of life, yet this condition is not recognized by most doctors, who only think of the adrenal gland's condition as being at either extreme - normal or in overt failure (Addison's disease).

    For those concerned about taking a hormone (cortisol) - perhaps for life -

    a more natural approach to strengthening the adrenal gland can be tried.

    This may include vitamin C, PABA, adrenal glandulars, ACE (Adreno-Cortico-Extracts) injections, licorice root, ginsengs, TMG (tri-methyl-glycine) and DHEA among other possibilities.

    Signs, symptoms & indicators of Low Adrenal Function / Adrenal Insufficiency:
    Lab Values - Common Low systolic blood pressure
    Low diastolic blood pressure

    Symptoms - Allergy
    Allergies to certain foods

    Symptoms - Environment
    Poor tolerance of cold
    Poor tolerance of heat

    Symptoms - Female
    Male characteristics

    Symptoms - Food - Beverages
    Constant/frequent thirst

    Symptoms - Food - General
    Weak appetite

    Normal eating frequency Regular, healthy eating habits support adrenal function.

    Symptoms - Food - Preferences
    Sugar/sweet craving
    Craving for salt

    Symptoms - Gas-Int - General
    Meal-related bloating

    Symptoms - General
    Fatigue that worsens during the day
    Chronic fatigue for over 3 months
    Constant fatigue
    Fatigue induced by light exertion
    Dizziness when standing up
    Having a CFS diagnosis or history of CFS diagnosis
    Slow recovery from colds

    No fatigue induced by light exertion
    Chronic fatigue now resolved
    No/past history of being fatigued
    Absence of worsening fatigue

    Symptoms - Hair
    Balding lower legs

    Symptoms - Head - Eyes/Ocular
    Vision disturbances
    (High) sensitivity to bright light

    Symptoms - Head - Nose
    Allergic rhinitis

    Symptoms - Immune System
    History of infections
    Postviral syndrome

    Symptoms - Metabolic
    Low energy/stamina
    Low body temperature
    Frequent colds/flus
    Being severely affected by flus

    Symptoms - Mind - Emotional
    Adverse reaction to stress
    Inability to work under pressure
    Occasional/frequent emotional exhaustion

    Symptoms - Muscular
    Tender muscles

    Symptoms - Reproductive - Female Cycle
    Hot flashes during period Adrenal estrogen seems to be necessary to avoid hot flashes during normal menses when the ovarian production of estrogen drops. Hot flashes during menses may be a symptom of mild adrenal cortex deficiency.

    Irregular menstrual cycles
    Unexplained missed periods
    Menopausal arthritis
    Breast soreness during cycle

    Symptoms - Reproductive - General
    Morning sickness
    Early/late term miscarriage or probable miscarriage
    Difficulty conceiving children

    Symptoms - Respiratory
    Occasional/regular/frequent sore throats

    Symptoms - Skin - Conditions
    Acne worse during period
    History of adult acne

    Symptoms - Skin - General
    Darker/redder skin color
    Diminished perspiration
    Red palms/fingertips

    Symptoms - Sleep
    Being a deep sleeper Regular good sleep habits (non-wakeful rest during the night, not snoring, waking refreshed) tend to contraindicate adrenal stress.

    Conditions that suggest Low Adrenal Function / Adrenal Insufficiency:
    Autoimmune Addison's Disease
    Lupus, SLE (Systemic Lupus Erythromatosis) Lupus is one of the auto-immune diseases, caused by a hyperactive ("hypervigilant") immune system that attacks a person's own protein as if it were foreign matter. One reason for this is poor adrenal function. Adrenal steroids modulate (slow down) the immune system: when there is not enough of these steroids the immune system goes berserk.

    Chronic Thyroiditis
    Crohn's Disease
    Ulcerative Colitis

    Addison's Disease

    Anemia (Iron deficiency) If anemia is identified as a problem then the likelihood of low adrenal function is reduced. Therefore, it is wise to rule out anemia first, because both can contribute to similar symptomology. Of course, it is not impossible for both to occur simultaneously, but this is less likely.

    Progesterone Low or Estrogen Dominance The inner most layer of an adrenal gland is the zona reticularis which produces small amounts of sex hormones. Specifically, it produces androgen, estrogen and progesterone. Adrenal exhaustion can therefore cause hormone deficiencies.

    Hypothyroidism A suggestive but unresolved issue is the connection between the thyroid and the adrenal glands. An altered sensitivity of tissues to thyroid hormone may take place when there is a reduction in adrenal hormones.


    AIDS Adrenal insufficiency is considerably less common than hypogonadism in people with HIV, but its incidence increases in advanced cases.

    Weakened Immune System Adrenal insufficiency can lead to a host of problems, including a weakened immune response, anxiety and panic attacks.

    Shingles (Herpes Zoster)

    Chronic Inflammation The adrenal glands produce hydrocortisol, the major natural anti-inflammatory steroid in the body. Without enough circulating cortisol there may be a tendency to become easily inflamed.

    Lab Values
    A Low IgM Level

    Anxiety Adrenal insufficiency can lead to a host of problems, including a weakened immune response, anxiety and panic attacks.

    Migraine/Tension Headaches

    Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Organ Health
    Diabetes Type II


    Dry skin
    Cold Hands and Feet
    Adult Acne

    Symptoms - Muscular
    Having a fibromyalgia diagnosis or history of fibromyalgia diagnosis

    Fibrocystic Breast Disease [The Safe Uses of Cortisol, William Mck. Jefferies, MD 1996, p.156]

    Erectile Dysfunction (ED, Impotence)
    Painful Menstruation (Dysmenorrhea) Dysmenorrhea caused by ovarian dysfunction may disappear when low doses of cortisol are used to improve adrenal influence on ovarian function. [The Safe Uses of Cortisol, William Mck. Jefferies, MD 1996, p.157]


    Risk factors for Low Adrenal Function / Adrenal Insufficiency:
    Childhood (Severe) sexual abuse during childhood Females who have been abused are more sensitive to life's stresses many years after the original abuse event(s). This elevated stress response can lead to adrenal exhaustion.

    Rapid growth but short stature

    A Healthy Diet Healthy and regular eating habits support adrenal function.

    A Good Aerobic Exercise Level Those regularly engaged in exercise and hobbies are less likely to suffer from adrenal problems.


    A Good Supplementation Level

    Personal Background
    Being in a good relationship Happy and fulfilling relationships tend to contraindicate adrenal compromise.

    Supplements and Medications
    Short-term/long-term/history of cortisol use
    Antihistamine use
    Prednisone use Long-term use of prednisone can lead to adrenal suppression, possibly resulting in depression, euphoria, hypertension, nausea, anorexia, high blood sugar levels, or increased susceptibility to infection.

    Symptoms - Allergy
    History of adult allergies

    Symptoms - Food - Beverages
    (High) coffee consumption Caffeine raises adrenaline levels and heavy coffee consumption can lead to a state of adrenal gland exhaustion, where the adrenal glands are no longer able to adequately respond to stress by releasing enough adrenaline.

    Symptoms - Glandular
    History of hypoglycemia
    History of hypothyroidism A suggestive but unresolved issue is the connection between the thyroid and the adrenal glands. An altered sensitivity of tissues to thyroid hormone may take place when there is a reduction in adrenal hormones.

    History of hyperthyroidism

    Symptoms - Head - Nose
    History of sinusitis

    Symptoms - Immune System
    History of postviral syndrome
    History of shingles
    History of chronic thyroiditis

    Symptoms - Mind - Emotional
    History of postpartum depression
    An average-stress/a high-stress lifestyle

    A low-stress lifestyle A slow-paced lifestyle would tend to contraindicate adrenal compromise.

    Symptoms - Muscular
    History of tender muscles

    Symptoms - Respiratory
    History of asthma

    Symptoms - Skin - Conditions
    History of adolescent acne

    Low Adrenal Function / Adrenal Insufficiency suggests the following may be present:
    Hormones Hypopituitarism

    AIDS Adrenal insufficiency is considerably less common than hypogonadism in people with HIV, but its incidence increases in advanced cases.

    Low Adrenal Function / Adrenal Insufficiency can lead to:
    Autoimmune Lupus, SLE (Systemic Lupus Erythromatosis) Lupus is one of the auto-immune diseases, caused by a hyperactive ("hypervigilant") immune system that attacks a person's own protein as if it were foreign matter. One reason for this is poor adrenal function. Adrenal steroids modulate (slow down) the immune system: when there is not enough of these steroids the immune system goes berserk.

    Recommendations and treatments for Low Adrenal Function / Adrenal Insufficiency:
    Botanical Licorice Root (Glycyrrhiza glabra) Licorice root is a specific herb that has been used for centuries to support these glands. If cortisol levels are low, one of the ways to sustain more normal levels is to slow or inhibit its breakdown. This can be accomplished naturally.

    The only known readily available inhibitors of the enzyme that deactivates cortisol (11 beta-HSD) are glycyrrhizic acid (found in licorice root extract), progesterone, and flavonoids (in grapefruit). The concept of extending cortisol bioactivity via 11 beta-HSD inhibition is well established, but the manner in which progesterone alters 11 beta-HSD is not currently clear. You could eat 10 to 15 grapefruits or take licorice root extract to sustain cortisol levels. However, licorice root used regularly in large doses can produce high blood pressure, water retention, potassium wasting, and breast enlargement in men. A Naturopathic Doctor should be able to guide you in using licorice root alone or in combination with other adrenal agents.

    Panax Ginseng Both Chinese ginseng (Panax ginseng) and Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) are known to exert beneficial effects on adrenal function and enhance resistance to stress.

    Ginseng may prove especially effective for the restoration of normal adrenal function and prevention of adrenal atrophy associated with corticosteroid administration. In rats, ginseng has been found to inhibit cortisone-induced adrenal and thymic atrophy. Ginseng could be combined with other botanicals with adrenal enhancing activity in the treatment of adrenal atrophy.

    Caffeine/Coffee Avoidance Caffeine raises adrenaline levels and heavy coffee consumption can lead to a state of adrenal gland exhaustion, where the adrenal glands are no longer able to adequately respond to stress by releasing enough adrenaline.

    Hydrocortisone Physiologic replacement doses of oral cortisol can make a dramatic difference in cases of adrenal exhaustion. Because of side-effects induced by larger doses, many doctors are reluctant to use it and many patients are thus deprived of a valuable and needed therapy. Physiologic doses of cortisol (5-25mg per day) are safe. Lab testing can confirm the diagnosis of mild adrenocortical deficiency. A doctor experienced with cortisol use should be consulted; a typical prescription is 5mg four times per day, with an emphasis on early morning use if later doses keep you up at night, or if fewer doses are taken.


    Lab Tests/Rule-Outs
    Test Adrenal Function Adrenal function can be evaluated in several ways by blood, saliva, and/or urine testing. Your doctor should know the best test to use depending on the suspected severity of the condition.

    Increased Salt Consumption Sea salt should be included in the diet, unless contraindicated for other reasons, as it benefits adrenal gland function. When seasoning foods, use as much salt as tastes good to you.


    TMG (Tri-methyl-glycine) The adrenal gland uses nutrients such as TMG (betaine), tyrosine, vitamins B5, B6 and C to maintain function and produce its hormones.

    Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid) Key nutrients to aid adrenal function include vitamin C, B5 (pantothenic acid), vitamin B6, zinc, and magnesium. These nutrients not only play a critical role in the health of the adrenal gland, but also in the manufacture of adrenal hormones.

    Vitamin A The adrenals need lots of vitamin A, C, and B-complex.

    Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
    Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) Taking 1-3gm of mineral ascorbates up to 3 times daily is supportive of adrenal gland function.

    Vitamin Paba PABA potentiates the hormone cortisol. When cortisol is being supplemented, the dosage of PABA may need to be reduced.

    KEY Weak or unproven link
    Strong or generally accepted link
    Proven definite or direct link
    Weakly counter-indicative
    Strongly counter-indicative
    May do some good
    Likely to help
    Highly recommended


    Addison's Disease
    A condition characterized by the chronic destruction of the adrenal cortex, which leads to an increased loss of sodium and water in the urine, muscle weakness and low blood pressure. The bronze color of the skin is due to the increased production of the skin pigment, melanin.

    Adrenal (Adrenal Gland, Adrenal Glands, Adrenals)
    The adrenal glands sit on top of each kidney and consist of an outer cortex and an inner medulla. Of the 50 or so hormones the adrenals make, only cortisone and adrenaline are recognized by most people. Some of these hormones must be produced to preserve life, while others help resist stress. Other hormones from the adrenals control normal energy output (along with the thyroid) and govern the breakdown of stored energy into quick energy sources. The medulla produces epinephrine and norepinephrine, which are specifically designed to help the body deal with stressful situations. The adrenals control the body's potassium/sodium balance, which is vital for energy production. They also produce sex hormones in minute amounts, which is important for later years when the gonads drop or cease their production.

    Adrenal Insufficiency (Adrenal Exhaustion, Low Adrenal Function)
    A condition in which the adrenal gland is compromised in its production of epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol, corticosterone or aldosterone. Symptoms include primarily fatigue, weakness, decreased appetite with ensuing weight loss, as well as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea or constipation, or increased pigmentation of the skin. Cortical insufficiency (low or no corticosteroids) produces a more serious condition called Addison’s Disease, characterized by extreme weakness, low blood pressure, pigmentation of the skin, shock or even death.

    Adrenaline (Epinephrin, Epinephrine)
    A hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla that is released into the bloodstream in response to physical or mental stress, as from fear or injury. It initiates many bodily responses, including the stimulation of heart action and an increase in blood pressure, metabolic rate, and blood glucose concentration.

    Allergy (Allergies)
    Hypersensitivity caused by exposure to a particular antigen (allergen), resulting in an increased reactivity to that antigen on subsequent exposure, sometimes with harmful immunologic consequences.

    Any steroid hormone that increases male characteristics.

    Anemia (Anaemia, Anemias)
    A condition resulting from an unusually low number of red blood cells or too little hemoglobin in the red blood cells. The most common type is iron-deficiency anemia in which the red blood cells are reduced in size and number, and hemoglobin levels are low. Clinical symptoms include shortness of breath, lethargy and heart palpitations.

    Anorexia Nervosa (Anorexia)
    An eating disorder characterized by excess control - a morbid fear of obesity leads the sufferer to try and limit or reduce their weight by excessive dieting, exercising, vomiting, purging and use of diuretics. Sufferers are typically more than 15% below the average weight for their height/sex/age and typically have amenorrhea (if female) or low libido (if male). 1-2% of female teenagers are anorexic.

    Anti-inflammatory (Antiinflammatory)
    Reducing inflammation by acting on body mechanisms, without directly acting on the cause of inflammation, e.g., glucocorticoids, aspirin.

    Apprehension of danger, or dread, accompanied by nervous restlessness, tension, increased heart rate, and shortness of breath unrelated to a clearly identifiable stimulus.

    Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS, Chronic Fatigue)
    A disorder of unknown cause that lasts for prolonged periods and causes extreme and debilitating exhaustion as well as a wide range of other symptoms such as fever, headache, muscle ache and joint pain, often resembling flu and other viral infections. Also known as Chronic Fatigue and Immune Dysfunction Syndrome (CFIDS), Chronic Epstein-Barr Virus (CEBV), Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME), "Yuppy Flu" and other names, it is frequently misdiagnosed as hypochondria, psychosomatic illness, or depression, because routine medical tests do not detect any problems.

    Steroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex.

    A hormone. Its most important function is to help the body respond to stress. It also helps regulate your body's use of protein, carbohydrates and fat; it helps maintain blood pressure and cardiovascular function; it stems inflammation.

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a steroid produced by the adrenal glands and is the most abundant one found in humans. DHEA may be transformed into testosterone, estrogen or other steroids. It is found in the body as DHEA or in the sulfated form known as DHEA-S. One form is converted into the other as needed.

    Difficult or painful menstruation.

    Enzymes (Enzyme)
    Specific protein catalysts produced by the cells that are crucial in chemical reactions and in building up or synthesizing most compounds in the body. Each enzyme performs a specific function without itself being consumed. For example, the digestive enzyme amylase acts on carbohydrates in foods to break them down.

    Estrogen (Oestrogen)
    One of the female sex hormones produced by the ovaries.

    Gland (Glands, Glandular)
    The glandular system is one of the most important and complicated systems of the body. Gland tissue can be either an organ or general tissue that secretes chemicals and there are two types of gland: exocrine and endocrine. Those glands which secrete chemicals through tubules or ducts are called exocrine and include sweat, tear and salivary glands. Ductless glands - part of the endocrine system - secrete special chemicals (hormones) directly into the blood.

    Gram (gm, gms, Gramme, Grammes, Grams)
    A metric unit of weight, there being approximately 28 grams in one ounce.

    Herbs (Herb, Herbal)
    Herbs may be used as dried extracts (capsules, powders, teas), glycerites (glycerine extracts), or tinctures (alcohol extracts). Unless otherwise indicated, teas should be made with one teaspoon herb per cup of hot water. Steep covered 5 to 10 minutes for leaf or flowers, and 10 to 20 minutes for roots. Tinctures may be used singly or in combination as noted. The high doses of single herbs suggested may be best taken as dried extracts (in capsules), although tinctures (60 drops four times per day) and teas (4 to 6 cups per day) may also be used.

    Hormones (Hormone)
    Chemical substances secreted by a variety of body organs that are carried by the bloodstream and usually influence cells some distance from the source of production. Hormones signal certain enzymes to perform their functions and, in this way, regulate such body functions as blood sugar levels, insulin levels, the menstrual cycle, and growth. These can be prescription, over-the-counter, synthetic or natural agents. Examples include adrenal hormones such as corticosteroids and aldosterone; glucagon, growth hormone, insulin, testosterone, estrogens, progestins, progesterone, DHEA, melatonin, and thyroid hormones such as thyroxine and calcitonin.

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
    A retrovirus associated with onset of advanced immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    High blood pressure. Hypertension increases the risk of heart attack, stroke, and kidney failure because it adds to the workload of the heart, causing it to enlarge and, over time, to weaken; in addition, it may damage the walls of the arteries.

    An essential mineral. The chief function of magnesium is to activate certain enzymes, especially those related to carbohydrate metabolism. Another role is to maintain the electrical potential across nerve and muscle membranes. It is essential for proper heartbeat and nerve transmission. Magnesium controls many cellular functions. It is involved in protein formation, DNA production and function and in the storage and release of energy in ATP. Magnesium is closely related to calcium and phosphorus in body function. The average adult body contains approximately one ounce of magnesium. It is the fifth mineral in abundance within the body--behind calcium, phosphorus, potassium and sodium. Although about 70 percent of the body's magnesium is contained in the teeth and bones, its most important functions are carried out by the remainder which is present in the cells of the soft tissues and in the fluid surrounding those cells.

    Menstruation (Menses, Menstrual, Menstrual Cycle, Menstrual Cycles, Menstrual Flow, Menstrual Phase, Monthly Cycle)
    The periodic discharge of blood, tissue fluid and mucus from the endometrium (lining of the uterus) that usually lasts from 3 - 5 days. It is caused by a sudden reduction in estrogens and progesterone.

    Milligram (mg, Milligrams)
    0.001 or a thousandth of a gram.

    Mineral (Minerals)
    Plays a vital role in regulating many body functions. They act as catalysts in nerve response, muscle contraction and the metabolism of nutrients in foods. They regulate electrolyte balance and hormonal production, and they strengthen skeletal structures.

    Naturopathy (Naturopath, Naturopathic, Naturopaths)
    Medical practice using herbs and other various methods to produce a healthy body state by stimulating innate defenses without the use of drugs.

    Symptoms resulting from an inclination to vomit.

    Panic Attack (Panic Attacks)
    A brief, irrational episode of fear that is perceived as so real that an individual may be driven to escape from the place or situation where it occurs. The attack is sudden and increases in severity until it leaves, usually within ten minutes. Panic attack symptoms are numerous and involve both mental and physical signs and symptoms. A panic attack can occur in other anxiety states such as agoraphobia and with certain activities and places. It may occur spontaneously without an apparent cause.

    Pantothenic Acid
    A B-complex vitamin necessary for the normal functioning of the adrenal gland, which directly affects growth. It is also essential for the formation of fatty acids. As a coenzyme, it participates in the utilization of riboflavin and in the release of energy from carbohydrates, fats and proteins.

    Para Aminobenzoic Acid (PABA)
    May be considered part of the B-complex vitamins. As a coenzyme, PABA functions in the breakdown and utilization of proteins and in the formation of red blood cells.

    A mineral that serves as an electrolyte and is involved in the balance of fluid within the body. Our bodies contain more than twice as much potassium as sodium (typically 9oz versus 4oz). About 98% of total body potassium is inside our cells. Potassium is the principal cation (positive ion) of the fluid within cells and is important in controlling the activity of the heart, muscles, nervous system and just about every cell in the body. Potassium regulates the water balance and acid-base balance in the blood and tissues. Evidence is showing that potassium is also involved in bone calcification. Potassium is a cofactor in many reactions, especially those involving energy production and muscle building.

    Protein (Proteins)
    Compounds composed of hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen present in the body and in foods that form complex combinations of amino acids. Protein is essential for life and is used for growth and repair. Foods that supply the body with protein include animal products, grains, legumes, and vegetables. Proteins from animal sources contain the essential amino acids. Proteins are changed to amino acids in the body.

    Saliva (Salivary)
    The watery mixture of secretions from the salivary and oral mucous glands that lubricates chewed food and moistens the oral walls.

    Steroid (Steroids)
    Any of a large number of hormonal substances with a similar basic chemical structure containing a 17-carbon 14-ring system and including the sterols and various hormones and glycosides.

    Thyroid (Thyroid Gland)
    The thyroid gland is an organ with many veins, anchored around the front of the throat near the voice box. It is essential to normal body growth in infancy and childhood. It absorbs iodine from the diet and releases thyroid hormones - iodine-containing compounds that help govern the rate of the body's metabolism (its total life processes), affecting body temperature, and regulating protein, fat and carbohydrate catabolism in all cells. They keep up growth hormone release, skeletal maturation, and heart rate, force, and output. They promote central nervous system growth, stimulate the making of many enzymes, and are necessary for muscle tone and vigor. To a high degree, metabolism is regulated by the hormone thyroxine, which can be made by the thyroid if enough organic iodine is available. An enlarged thyroid gland that is not cancer is sometimes called goitre.

    Tri-Methyl-Glycine (DMG, TMG)
    After supplying a methyl group, TMG becomes di-methyl-glycine. DMG, a natural component of animal and plant metabolism, positively influences the immune response in laboratory animals and humans and boosts physical and mental performance.

    A nonessential amino acid but may be essential for individuals with certain diseases or nutritional concerns. May be important for neurotransmitter synthesis and mood regulation. May be useful for depression, allergies and addictive states.

    Vitamin A
    A fat-soluble vitamin essential to one's health. Plays an important part in the growth and repair of body tissue, protects epithelial tissue, helps maintain the skin and is necessary for night vision. It is also necessary for normal growth and formation of bones and teeth. For Vitamin A only, 1mg translates to 833 IU.

    Vitamin B6 (B6, B-6)
    Influences many body functions including regulating blood glucose levels, manufacturing hemoglobin and aiding the utilization of protein, carbohydrates and fats. It also aids in the function of the nervous system.

    Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)
    A water-soluble antioxidant vitamin essential to the body's health. When bound to other nutrients, for example calcium, it would be referred to as "calcium ascorbate". As an antioxidant, it inhibits the formation of nitrosamines (a suspected carcinogen). Vitamin C is important for maintenance of bones, teeth, collagen and blood vessels (capillaries), enhances iron absorption and red blood cell formation, helps in the utilization of carbohydrates and synthesis of fats and proteins, aids in fighting bacterial infections, and interacts with other nutrients. It is present in citrus fruits, tomatoes, berries, potatoes and fresh, green leafy vegetables.

    Last updated: Mar 11, 2006

  2. hope2001

    hope2001 New Member

  3. TwinMa

    TwinMa New Member

    That is certainly an interesting site! Thank you for bringing it to our attention! Lots of good info!

    Have you done the pay service where you fill out the lengthy questionnaire and they actually diagnose you?

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