New drug-resistant gut bacteria reported

Discussion in 'Fibromyalgia Main Forum' started by richvank, Sep 14, 2010.

  1. richvank

    richvank New Member

    Hi, all.

    The news media today are carrying
    stories about newly-discovered drug-resistant gut bacteria that may
    have originated in India. A gene called NDM-1 is being exchanged
    between different species of bacteria, making them resistant to most
    antibiotics. With all the gut problems PWMEs/PWCs already have, this
    is not good news. I think this really emphasizes the importance of
    considering the use of non-pharmaceutical antimicrobials.

    Best regards,


    Lancet Infect Dis. 2010 Sep;10(9):597-602. Epub 2010 Aug 10.
    Emergence of a new antibiotic resistance mechanism in India, Pakistan,
    and the UK: a molecular, biological, and epidemiological study.

    Kumarasamy KK, Toleman MA, Walsh TR, Bagaria J, Butt F, Balakrishnan
    R, Chaudhary U, Doumith M, Giske CG, Irfan S, Krishnan P, Kumar AV,
    Maharjan S, Mushtaq S, Noorie T, Paterson DL, Pearson A, Perry C, Pike
    R, Rao B, Ray U, Sarma JB, Sharma M, Sheridan E, Thirunarayan MA,
    Turton J, Upadhyay S, Warner M, Welfare W, Livermore DM, Woodford N.

    Department of Microbiology, Dr ALM PG IBMS, University of Madras,
    Chennai, India.

    BACKGROUND: Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae with resistance to
    carbapenem conferred by New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1 (NDM-1) are
    potentially a major global health problem. We investigated the
    prevalence of NDM-1, in multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in
    India, Pakistan, and the UK.

    METHODS: Enterobacteriaceae isolates were studied from two major
    centres in India--Chennai (south India), Haryana (north India)--and
    those referred to the UK's national reference laboratory. Antibiotic
    susceptibilities were assessed, and the presence of the carbapenem
    resistance gene bla(NDM-1) was established by PCR. Isolates were typed
    by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of XbaI-restricted genomic DNA.
    Plasmids were analysed by S1 nuclease digestion and PCR typing. Case
    data for UK patients were reviewed for evidence of travel and recent
    admission to hospitals in India or Pakistan.

    FINDINGS: We identified 44 isolates with NDM-1 in Chennai, 26 in
    Haryana, 37 in the UK, and 73 in other sites in India and Pakistan.
    NDM-1 was mostly found among Escherichia coli (36) and Klebsiella
    pneumoniae (111), which were highly resistant to all antibiotics
    except to tigecycline and colistin. K pneumoniae isolates from Haryana
    were clonal but NDM-1 producers from the UK and Chennai were clonally
    diverse. Most isolates carried the NDM-1 gene on plasmids: those from
    UK and Chennai were readily transferable whereas those from Haryana
    were not conjugative. Many of the UK NDM-1 positive patients had
    travelled to India or Pakistan within the past year, or had links with
    these countries.

    INTERPRETATION: The potential of NDM-1 to be a worldwide public health
    problem is great, and co-ordinated international surveillance is

    PMID: 20705517 [PubMed - in process]
  2. gapsych

    gapsych New Member

    I don't understand how this relates to not using pharmaceutical antimicrobials.

    Did I miss something?

    Are you talking about supplements? The article states that two antibiotics do not have resistance to this.



    [This Message was Edited on 09/14/2010]
  3. richvank

    richvank New Member

    Hi, gapsych.

    I don't think I suggested not using pharmaceutical antimicrobials in my post.

    However, the point of the paper is that these bacteria have become drug resistant, so that few pharmaceutical antimicrobials are effective on them. Discussion of this topic at a recent medical conference expressed concern that the intestinal bacteria would become resistant to all the available pharmaceutical antimicrobials, and apparently that has occurred in a small number of cases. So the problem would be that they simply would not work on these bacteria.
    This is similar to what has happened with Staph. aureus, which has become a major problem in hospitals.

    There is also speculation that the reason this gene has been selected for is that there is very widespread use of antibiotics in India, because of their serious problems with intestinal infections there. So overuse of pharmaceutical antimicrobials may have contributed to development of these resistant strains.

    My impression is that bacteria do not become resistant to the natural, nonpharmaceutical antimicrobials as readily as they do to the pharmaceutical ones. Let me know if I'm wrong about this.

  4. karynwolfe

    karynwolfe New Member

    Did you know olive leaf extract is effective against MRSA (drug-resistant staph)?

    I find that fascinating because it's not effective against more common, non-destructive bacteria (it's mostly an antiviral), and yet it's effective against THAT...!
  5. gapsych

    gapsych New Member

    Can you show me some scientific evidence that Olive Oil Extract is effective against MRSA.

    Are you talking about the type on the skin or when it gets into your blood?


  6. karynwolfe

    karynwolfe New Member

    Of course :)


    Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2009 May;33(5):461-3. Epub 2009 Jan 9.

    Antimicrobial activity of commercial Olea europaea (olive) leaf extract.
    Sudjana AN, D'Orazio C, Ryan V, Rasool N, Ng J, Islam N, Riley TV, Hammer KA.

    Discipline of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Biomedical, Biomolecular and Chemical Sciences, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia.

    The aim of this research was to investigate the activity of a commercial extract derived from the leaves of Olea europaea (olive) against a wide range of microorganisms (n=122). Using agar dilution and broth microdilution techniques, olive leaf extract was found to be most active against Campylobacter jejuni, Helicobacter pylori and Staphylococcus aureus [including meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA)], with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) as low as 0.31-0.78% (v/v). In contrast, the extract showed little activity against all other test organisms (n=79), with MICs for most ranging from 6.25% to 50% (v/v). Given this specific activity, olive leaf extract may have a role in regulating the composition of the gastric flora by selectively reducing levels of H. pylori and C. jejuni.

    PMID: 19135874 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    *** "In conclusion, olive leaf extract was not broad-spectrum in action, showing appreciable activity only against H. pylori, C. jejuni, S. aureus and MRSA. "


    J Appl Bacteriol. 1993 Mar;74(3):253-9.

    The effect of the olive phenolic compound, oleuropein, on growth and enterotoxin B production by Staphylococcus aureus.
    Tranter HS, Tassou SC, Nychas GJ.

    Division of Biologics, PHLS Centre for Applied Microbiology and Research, Salisbury, Wilts, UK.

    The presence of low concentrations (0.1% w/v) of oleuropein, a phenolic compound extracted from olives, delayed the growth of Staphylococcus aureus in NZ amine A and brain heart infusion media modified by the addition of growth factors and glucose (NZA+ and BHI+), as indicated by changes in conductance, whilst higher concentrations (0.4-0.6% w/v) inhibited growth completely. Intermediate concentrations of oleuropein (0.2%) prevented growth in BHI+ but allowed growth to occur in NZA+ despite an extended lag phase (30 h). Concentrations of oleuropein > 0.2% inhibited growth and production of enterotoxin B in both types of media. Lower levels (0.1%) did not affect the final viable count and production of toxin in BHI+ but decreased the number of viable organisms and reduced the toxin production in NZA+ by eightfold. An increase in the concentration of oleuropein resulted in a decrease in the amount of glucose assimilated and consequently the amount of lactate produced. In addition, oleuropein prevented the secretion of a number of exoproteins. Addition of oleuropein during the exponential phase appeared to have no effect on the growth of Staph. aureus in NZA+.

    PMID: 8468258 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    ***"The presence of low concentrations (0.1% w/v) of oleuropein, a phenolic compound extracted from olives, delayed the growth of Staphylococcus aureus...whilst higher concentrations (0.4-0.6% w/v) inhibited growth completely."
  7. gapsych

    gapsych New Member

    Studies what focus on what happens in the petri dish do not always translate to treatment.

    Definitely need more studies.

    Thanks for the references.

    Drano would kill the virus but not be a good treatment.

    Maybe other people with a medical background can chime in?


    The word I was looking for in the above sentence is in vitro studies.

    [This Message was Edited on 09/14/2010]
  8. karynwolfe

    karynwolfe New Member

    ...But drinking Drano would also kill the person! LOL.

    I do understand what you mean, and I did only say that OLE was effective against MRSA, not that it treats a MRSA infection if you have it. It might, but that hasn't been proven yet. I thought it'd be interesting to add, since rich mentioned, "I think this really emphasizes the importance of considering the use of non-pharmaceutical antimicrobials."

    With these preliminaries, I think OLE should definitely be one of the non-pharmaceuticals they consider!
  9. gapsych

    gapsych New Member

    LOL, "effective" vs. "treatment" I didn't catch that.

    Good one!!! :>)

  10. karynwolfe

    karynwolfe New Member

  11. gapsych

    gapsych New Member

    Maybe you did not intend for people to read your post and think that you are saying to use supplements instead of pharmaceutical antimicobials but that sure is the way it could be interpreted.

    As the article states there are two antibiotics that do kill the bacteria.

    If you really feel we need to take supplements then please also work on getting the supplements regulated as when you buy them you don't even know if that is what you are getting and some may have dangerous ingredients.

    Are you talking about the conference with Amy Yasko?


    ETA Are there any studies that show that the "natural" products are less likely to build up a resistance or that supplements are as good as antibiotics for infections?

    Curious minds want to know. :>)

    [This Message was Edited on 09/14/2010]
  12. spacee

    spacee Member

    My SIL recovered from MRSA of lung....this info is invaluable to us.

  13. munch1958

    munch1958 Member

    IMHO, Dr Kent Holtorf (a former CFS sufferer himself) has painted an excellent picture of both CFS and FM:

    Current research suggests that many triggers can initiate a cascade of events, causing the hypothalamic, pituitary, immune and coagulation dysfunction. The most common initiating cause is a viral or bacterial infection, which is very commonly Epstein Bar Virus (EBV), Cytomegalovirus (CMV), HHV6, mycoplasma, Chlamydia pneumonia or Lyme disease. When specialized testing is utilized, these infections are found in 30-80% of CFS and FM patients. Many people with these syndromes can pinpoint the start of their disease to a viral infection that never got better usually during significant life stressors.

    Definition of a pathogen: An agent of disease or a illness producer. The term pathogen most commonly is used to refer to infectious organisms.

    These include bacteria and spirochetes, viruses and fungi. For most of us this means addressing fungal pathogens with either herbal agents or pharmaceuticals such as Diflucan and/or Nystatin, appropriate course of antibiotics, and Anti-virals.

    The term pathogen was devised about 1880 and was compounded from patho- meaning disease + -gen indicating a producer.

    After living with this illness since 1981, I have found that it would be a major benefit for people with fatigue based illnesses to find a doctor to investigate chronic and latent infections with human pathogens:

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis and or leprae
    Influenza virus;
    Mycoplasma strains like mycoplasma incognitus fermentans, mycoplasma pneumonia;
    XMRV & other retrovirisus -- HIV;
    Epstein Bar Virus (EBV);
    Cytomegalovirus (CMV);
    Chlamydia pneumonia;

    Bear in mind this list does not include EVERYTHING but these are some things to get checked out. Keep in mind that current testing methods for some of these pathogens is not very accurate! So some of these are based on a clinical (doctor's) diagnosis.

    While at it also check out:

    Hypothyroidism -- don't just accept TSH which is the "standard" test because it does not always translate to a problem with Free T3 & Free T4 levels;
    Adrenal Insufficiency;
    Lack of sleep or poor sleep;
    Sleep apnea;
    Not enough food (dieting);
    Food allergies and intolerances;
    Vitamin B12 deficiency;
    Vitamin D deficiency;
    Growth hormone deficiency;
    Hypercoagulation defect;
    Folate deficiency;
    Low Glutathione levels;
    Heart disease and

    The chronic infections ultimately lead to hypothalamus dysfunction which is responsible for almost all our major symptoms. All of these things can contribute to fatigue and muscle pain. In the past 30 some odd years, I've had many of these problems. I am now 98% better and living a normal life.

    Just came back to post this link:

    "The Role of Growth Hormone Deficiency in Chronic Illness" by Carol Ann Ryser, MD
    [This Message was Edited on 09/16/2010]
  14. richvank

    richvank New Member

    Hi, munch.

    It's wonderful to hear that you are doing so well! I went and read your profile, too. What a lot you have been through! Thanks for posting.

  15. u&iraok

    u&iraok New Member

    This is an issue we need to be VERY concerned about. It's not limited to India. We need to be concerned about all drug-resistant pathogens.

    Here's one issue relating to mercury from a paper by Dr. Klinghardt and Dr. Mercola:

    "It has also been shown that the presence of amalgam fillings conveys immunity to antibiotics to various bacteria and also impairs the body's own defense system. Mercury is, therefore, the only substance ever shown that induces antibiotic resistance in bacteria, other than an antibiotic itself."

    Reference cited for above quote:

    Summers AO, Wireman J, Vimy MI, Lorscheider FI, Marshall B, Levy SB, et al; Mercury released from dental Asilver@ fillings provokes an increase in mercury and antibiotic-resistant bacteria in oral and intestinal floras of primates. Antimicrob Agents and Chemother 37:825-834, 1993.

    India has a heavy metals problem but so does the U.S.

    Rich, I don't know if bacteria become resistant to natural anti-bacterials but fungi do such as when candida yeast mutate into a fungus and thus become the infection Candidiasis. You have to make sure you rotate the things you're taking to kill it every 5 days or so.

  16. munch1958

    munch1958 Member

    It's been a long road to recovery and just when I was feeling really great for the first time since I was a kid, I had 6 spine fractures without a traumatic incident. That was a major setback as being cemented back together like Humpty Dumpty is never pleasant. My bone density is up 50% thanks to Forteo, BHRT pellets, and strontium.

    I loved your article about GD & MCB or Glutathione Depletion—Methylation Cycle Block Hypothesis for the Pathogenesis of CFS. I wish you would write a book... maybe "Glutathione Methylation Cycle Block for Dummies." One supplement that I will never drop is Folapro. Now I've got my hubs on it for elevated homocysteine.

    For those who are not familiar with Rich's work:

  17. richvank

    richvank New Member

    Hi, Olivia.

    I agree.

    Best regards,