Discussion in 'Fibromyalgia Main Forum' started by karinaxx, Oct 2, 2006.

  1. karinaxx

    karinaxx New Member


    There is now evidence that chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is accompanied by immune disorders and by increased oxidative stress.
    The present study has been designed in order to examine the serum concentrations of IgA and IgM to LPS of gram-negative
    enterobacteria, i.e. Hafnia alvei; Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Morganella morganii, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas putida, Citrobacter
    koseri, and Klebsiella pneumoniae in CFS patients, patients with partial CFS and normal controls.
    We found that the prevalences and median values for serum IgA against the LPS of enterobacteria are significantly greater in
    patients with CFS than in normal volunteers and patients with partial CFS. Serum IgA levels were significantly correlated to the
    severity of illness, as measured by the FibroFatigue scale and to symptoms, such as irritable bowel, muscular tension, fatigue,
    concentration difficulties, and failing memory.
    The results show that enterobacteria are involved in the etiology of CFS and that an increased gut–intestinal permeability has
    caused an immune response to the LPS of gram-negative enterobacteria. It is suggested that all patients with CFS should be
    checked by means of the IgA panel used in the present study and accordingly should be treated for increased gut permeability.
    © 2006 Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Keywords: Chronic fatigue syndrome; Inflammation; Immunity; Autoimmune; IgA; Enterobacteria; Gut permeability; Oxidative stress; Leaky gut

  2. Mikie

    Mikie Moderator

    Thank you for posting this.

    Love, Mikie
  3. karinaxx

    karinaxx New Member

    take care
  4. findmind

    findmind New Member

    There you are again!

    A fount of information, you are :)

    Does anyone know what the treatment would be?

  5. karinaxx

    karinaxx New Member

    Dear findmind,
    No fountain, more like a hunting dog on a mission; just cant let go of it! My idea of life: Never Ending Education!

    No, don’t know specific treatment; I guess it would be Antibiotics, but this is more Mickies department.
    She might know specific ......
    Hug karina

    [This Message was Edited on 10/02/2006]
  6. victoria

    victoria New Member

    I had posted this and bumped it tonight, but the board has been moving very fast... will bump it again as it had some response as to what could help...


  7. karinaxx

    karinaxx New Member

    just fast trying to answer: enterobacteria are gut bacteria. the test is a blood antigen test to several of this "gut" bacterias named above in the article.
    i did not have time yet to google about treatments, but jane colby "tymes trust" and some other uk based dr. were talking about this enterobacteria for quiet some time.
    i will check it later, have to go to see the doc. now.
    victoria, keep your post bumping please. i seem to miss a lot , the board is moving to fast.
    love karina
  8. karinaxx

    karinaxx New Member

    just google ei-resource or Environmental Illness Recource.

  9. Prunella

    Prunella New Member

    Bumping because this relates to the new IBS research that Dr. Pimenthal is doing that Victoria posted.
  10. Slayadragon

    Slayadragon New Member

    I've been perusing an article on this topic recently---if you google

    leaky gut

    it's the one at mdheal

    This seems to say pretty much the same thing as the article above, except in a lot more detail.

    I am copying the summary of the article plus the "trophic nutrients" that help the gut to heal.

    According to this article, the other components of healing include antibiotics as needed, avoidance of allergic foods, and avoidance of certain drugs (such as, I would imagine, aspirin).

    Oddly, this article doesn't mention aloe vera juice. I would think that might be especially effective. It seems something to investigate anyway. (I know that Stormy regularly consumes--or maybe consumed--this, but I can't recall why.)



    Altered intestinal permeability is a key element in the pathogenesis of many different diseases. Hyperpermeability initiates a vicious cycle in which allergic sensitization, endotoxic immune activation, hepatic dysfunction, pancreatic insufficiency and malnutrition occur; each of these increases the leakiness of the small bowel. Effective treatment of the Leaky Gut Syndromes requires several components: avoidance of enterotoxic drugs and allergic foods, elimination of infection or bacterial overgrowth with antimicrobials and probiotics, and dietary supplementation with trophic nutrients. Direct measurement of intestinal permeability allows the clinician to plan appropriate strategies and to gauge the effectiveness of treatment, using objective parameters.



    Many naturally occurring substances help repair the intestinal mucosal surface or support the liver when stressed by enteric toxins. Basic vitamin and mineral supplementation should include all the B vitamins, retinol, ascorbate, tocopherol, zinc, selenium, molybdenum, manganese, and magnesium. More specialized nutritional, glandular and herbal therapies are considered below. These should not be used as primary therapies. Avoidance of enterotoxic drugs, treatment of intestinal infection or dysbiosis, and an allergy elimination diet of high nutrient density that is appropriate for the individual patient are the primary treatment strategies for the Leaky Gut Syndromes. The recommendations that follow are to be used as adjuncts:

    (1) Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) is a polypeptide that stimulates growth and repair of epithelial tissue. It is widely distributed in the body, with high concentrations detectable in salivary and prostate glands and in the duodenum. Saliva can be a rich source of EGF, especially the saliva of certain non-poisonous snakes. The use of serpents in healing rituals may reflect the value of ophidian saliva in promoting the healing of wounds. Thorough mastication of food may nourish the gut by providing it with salivary EGF. Purified EGF has been shown to heal ulceration of the small intestine [131].

    (2) Saccharomyces boulardii is a non-pathogenic yeast originally isolated from the surface of lichee nuts. It has been widely used in Europe to treat diarrhea. In France it is popularly called "Yeast against yeast" and is thought to help clear the skin in addition to the gut. Clinical trials have demonstrated the effectiveness for S. boulardii in the treatment or prevention of C. difficile diarrhea, antibiotic diarrhea and traveler's diarrhea[132, 133]. Experimental data suggest that the yeast owes its effect to stimulation of SIgA secretion[134]. SIgA is a key immunological component of gut barrier function.


    Passive elevation of gut immunoglobulin levels can be produced by feeding whey protein concentrates that are rich in IgA and IgG. These have been shown to be effective in preventing infantile necrotizing enterocolitis[135].

    (3) Lactobacillus caseii var GG is a strain of lactobacillus isolated and purified in Finland. Like S.boulardii, Lactobacillus GG has been shown effective in the prevention of traveller's diarrhea and of antibiotic diarrhea and in the treatment of colitis caused by C. difficile. Lactobacillus GG limits diarrhea caused by rotavirus infection in children and in so doing improves the hyperpermeability associated with rotavirus infection.[136-139] The mechanism of action is unclear. The ability of other Lactobacillus preparations to improve altered permeability has not been directly tested, but is suggested by the ability of live cultures of L. acidophilus to diminish radiation-induced diarrhea, a condition directly produced by the loss of mucosal integrity.

    (4) Glutamine is an important substrate for the maintenance of intestinal metabolism, structure and function. Patients and experimental animals that are fasted or fed only by a parenteral route develop intestinal villous atrophy, depletion of SIgA, and translocation of bacteria from the gut lumen to the systemic circulation. Feeding glutamine reverses all these abnormalities. Patients with intestinal mucosal injury secondary to chemotherapy or radiation benefit from glutamine supplementation with less villous atrophy, increased mucosal healing and decreased passage of endotoxin through the gut wall[140-143].

    (5) Glutathione (GSH) is an important component of the anti-oxidant defense against free radical-induced tissue damage. Dietary glutathione is not well absorbed, so that considerable quantities may be found throughout the gut lumen following supplementation[144]. Hepatic GSH is a key substrate for reducing toxic oxygen metabolites and oxidized xenobiotics in the liver. Depletion of hepatic glutathione is a common occurence in Leaky Gut Syndromes contributing to liver dysfunction and liver necrosis among alcoholics and immune impairment in patients with AIDS. The most effective way to raise hepatic glutathione is to administer its dietary precursors, cysteine or methionine. Anti-oxidant supplementation for Leaky Gut Syndromes should therefore include both GSH and N-acetyl cysteine. Because protozoa are more sensitive to oxidant stress than are humans and because most anti-parasitic drugs and herbs work by oxidative mechanisms, high dose anti-oxidant supplementation should be witheld during the treatment of protozoan infection, especially during treatment with Artemisia. (6) Flavonoids are potent, phenolic anti-oxidants and enzyme inhibitors with varied effects depending on the tissues in which they act. Quercetin and related flavonoids inhibit the release of histamine and inflammatory mediators. Taken before eating, they may block allergic reactions which increase permeability. Catechins have been used in Europe to treat gastric ulcerations. The flavonoids in milk thistle (silymarin) and in dandelion root (taraxacum) protect the liver against reactive oxygen species[145].

    (7) Essential fatty acids (EFAs) are the substrates for prostaglandin synthesis. Differential feeding of EFAs can profoundly affect prostanoid synthesis and the systemic response to endotoxin. In experimental animals, fish oil feeding ameliorates the intestinal mucosal injury produced by methotrexate and, additionally, blunts the systemic circulatory response to endotoxin[146]. The feeding of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), promotes the synthesis of E-series prostaglandins, which decrease permeability. EFAs should be consumed in the most concentrated and physiologically active form to avoid exposure to large quantities of polyunsaturated fatty acids from dietary oils. Consumption of vegetable oils tends to increase the free radical content of bile and to exacerbate the effects of endotoxin[147].

    (8) Fiber supplements have complex effects on gut permeability and bacterial composition. Low fibre diets increase permeability. Dietary supplementation with insoluble fibre, such as pure cellulose, decreases permeability. Dietary supplementation with highly soluble fibre sources, such as fruit pectin or guar gum, has a biphasic effect. At low levels they reverse the hyperpermeability of low residue diets, probably by a mechanical bulking effect which stimulates synthesis of mucosal growth factors. At high levels of supplementation, they produce hyperpermeability, probably by inducing synthesis of bacterial enzymes which degrade intestinal mucins[148-151]. For maximum benefit with regard to intestinal permeability, dietary fibre supplementation should therefore contain a predominance of hypoallergenic insoluble fibre.

    (9) Gamma oryzanol, a complex mixture of ferulic acid esters of phytosterosl and other triterpene alcohols derived from rice bran, has been extensively researched in Japan for its healing effects in the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulceration, thought to be secondary to its potent anti-oxidant activity[152, 153].
    [This Message was Edited on 10/22/2006]
  11. Prunella

    Prunella New Member

    Thanks for this article. Most of the advice sounds great except a long time ago I posted some info I had read that S.boulardii can be harmful to certain people. It's late, so I will look it up tomorrow.

    Also, guar gum is something I have noticed that bothers me and I think the article is idicating that, too. I will reread it tomorrow.

    Glutathione as found in asparagus can be very beneficial!