In Dr. Lee’s book “What Your Doctor May Not Tell You About Premenopause” p.140 he says that an imbalance of prostaglandins can lead to heart disease, immune system disfunction, inflammation, pain and PMS. Supplements such as evening primrose oil and borage oil contain high levels of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) oils which stimulate the anti-inflammatory prostaglandins. These can be helpful to deal with symptoms of prostaglandin imbalance. Dr. Lee says “One of the easiest ways to get your prostaglandins out of balance is to eat foods that contain hydrogenated oils (trans-fatty acids) found in margarines and in most cakes, cookies and chips, which show up on the label as ‘partially hydrogenated’. These synthetic oils block the effect of the natural oils which have important and potent regulatory effects on your prostaglandins.” Eating rancid oil also creates prostaglandin imbalances. “Other causes of imbalanced prostaglandins are too much sugar in the diet, viral illnesses such as herpes and ...stress. The release of stress hormones stimulates the inflammation-producing prostaglandins, which may be good news if you’re injured or fighting off an illness but causes chronic problems such as PMS when it is a daily occurrence. Inflammation raises both cortisol and estrogen levels and it suppresses progesterone” (which could lead to further problems involving estrogen dominance). Many people use aspirin because it blocks prostaglandins and in the process reduces inflammation, but aspirin wasn’t meant to be used on a continuous basis so that it continuously depresses our prostaglandin function. The so called essential fatty acids (EFAs) found in “good oils” such as borage oil, evening primrose oil and flax seed oil as well as pumpkin oils and walnut oils” can be very useful for treating inflammation-related symptoms in the short term, but normally we only need tiny amounts of these oils. “Using the relatively huge amounts of the EFAs found in supplements over the long term without addressing the underlying cause is just going to create yet another imbalance in your body.” It is also possible that zinc deficiency contributes to essential fatty acid imbalances, since zinc, vitamin C, and some B vitamins are needed to make the conversion from an unsaturated oil to the needed EFAs.” Estrogen increases copper and decreases zinc levels Estrogen dominance can result in a deficiency of zinc. This article caught my eye because it mentioned how herpes viruses affect prostaglandin production. I've been looking for a link between herpes and chronic pain and I thought that this was an interesting tidbit. I recommend that anyone with CFS read Dr. Lee’s books “What Your Doctor May Not Tell You About Menopause The Breakthrough Book On Natural Progesterone” and “What Your Doctor May Not Tell You About Premenopause”. It seems to me that so much of what he calls estrogen dominance applies to the symptoms of CFS.