Richvank, does liposomal glutathione actually raise glutathione levels?

Discussion in 'Fibromyalgia Main Forum' started by equanimous, Jan 13, 2011.

  1. equanimous

    equanimous New Member

    Rich,
    Thank you so so so so so much for all this information. I did some research on the Yasko forum, but having all of this comprehensive info in one coherent explanation is really helpful. I'm planning on trying to lower some of the supplement dosages while, at the same time, add in liposomal glutathione, vitamin b6 and GABA (one at a time, of course - gotta keep it scientific). I guess I'm just super dubious about liposomal glutathione because everything I've ever heard about glutathione is that it can't be effectively absorbed when administered orally. Are there studies demonstrating the efficacy of liposomal glutathione in raising glutathione levels? I somehow feel like I'm just swallowing snake oil, but I'd like to be disproven. Also, do you have any recommendations from a scientific p.o.v. of how much to take and when to take it during the day?

    Also, when you say that you have not heard of anyone building glutathione during methylation treatment, do you mean specifically with liposomal glutathione or with any type of administration? If the former, have people had success treating the exotoxicity using other methods of increasing glutathione?

    Thanks again,
    Liz
  2. richvank

    richvank New Member

    ***Hi, Liz.

    ***My responses are at the asterisks below:

    Thank you so so so so so much for all this information. I did some research on the Yasko forum, but having all of this comprehensive info in one coherent explanation is really helpful.

    ***You're welcome.

    I'm planning on trying to lower some of the supplement dosages while, at the same time, add in liposomal glutathione, vitamin b6 and GABA (one at a time, of course - gotta keep it scientific).

    ***O.K. Sounds like a good experiment!

    I guess I'm just super dubious about liposomal glutathione because everything I've ever heard about glutathione is that it can't be effectively absorbed when administered orally.

    ***It's true that ordinary oral glutathione is not well absorbed. There are enzymes in the small intestine that break it down into its constituent amino acids. These are then absorbed. Some no doubt make it to the liver, which can reform glutathione from them. The liver uses some glutathione itself, and exports some to the rest of the body via the blood. So the amount that can get to other organs, tissues and cells by this means is somewhat limited.

    ***Liposomal glutathione is absorbed in a different way. The glutathione is contained inside liposomes, which are little capsules that are composed of lipid (fat) membranes. These liposomes are able to pass right through cell membranes, which are also composed of lipids. So the glutathione is not digested as it is if taken without liposomal containment.

    ***The liposomal approach had been used for quite a few years as a means of bringing drugs into the body that are not well absorbed by the gut. A few years ago, the use of this technology was spread to certain nutritional supplements that are not always absorbed well either, including glutathione and B12. I think there is a liposomal vitamin C now, too. There is plenty of evidence that the liposomal mode does carry substances into the body and into cells.

    Are there studies demonstrating the efficacy of liposomal glutathione in raising glutathione levels?

    ***There aren't many published studies of liposomal glutathione. There are at least 3 producers of this type of supplement, I think. I suspect that if one of them sponsored a study, the others would have a competitive advantage, because they would be able to cite the study to sell their product without having to pay the cost of it. This is a disincentive to doing studies on nutritional supplements. In the case of drugs, there is patent protection, which makes the studies a worthwhile investment for the company that has the patent. A couple of abstracts of studies that have been done are below. One of them was done with a culture of mouse neuronal cells, and it shows that the liposomal glutathione did enter the cells. I don't know from the abstract whether the liposomal glutathione was given to the rats orally or by injection.

    I somehow feel like I'm just swallowing snake oil, but I'd like to be disproven.

    ***I think there is good evidence that the glutathione will be carried into the cells by the liposomes, on the basis of these studies as well as other experience with liposomal drug delivery.

    ***I do recall at least one person reporting that they had run blood tests for glutathione before and after a period of using liposomal glutathione, and they had observed an increase.

    Also, do you have any recommendations from a scientific p.o.v. of how much to take and when to take it during the day?

    ***No, I don't. I think the suppliers do have recommended dosages on the bottles. This may take some experimentation.

    Also, when you say that you have not heard of anyone building glutathione during methylation treatment, do you mean specifically with liposomal glutathione or with any type of administration?

    ***Some of the people in the Yahoo cfs_yasko group or the Yahoo CFSFMExperimental group have reported taking glutathione by nebulizer, in some cases mixed with B12. I think this was first done by Dr. Grace Ziem, for treating multiple chemical sensitivity. I don't recall whether any of these people have reported on the effect on excitotoxicity.

    If the former, have people had success treating the exotoxicity using other methods of increasing glutathione?

    ***I haven't heard from anyone about this. I just suggested consideration of this possibility recently, on the basis of the biochemistry. As far as I know, it hasn't been tested.

    ***Best regards,

    ***Rich

    Atherosclerosis. 2007 Dec;195(2):e61-8. Epub 2007 Jun 22.
    Anti-oxidant and anti-atherogenic properties of liposomal glutathione: studies in vitro, and in the atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

    Rosenblat M, Volkova N, Coleman R, Aviram M.

    The Lipid Research Laboratory, Technion Faculty of Medicine, The Rappaport Family Institute for Research in the Medical Sciences, Rambam Medical Center, Haifa 31096, Israel.
    Abstract

    Liposomal glutathione, but not the control liposomes (with no glutathione), dose-dependently inhibited copper ion-induced low density lipoprotein (LDL) and HDL oxidation. As peroxidase activity was found to be present in both LDL and HDL, it has contributed to the anti-oxidative effects of liposomal glutathione. In-vitro, no significant effect of liposomal glutathione on J774 A.1 macrophage cell-line oxidative stress and on cellular cholesterol metabolism was observed. In contrast, in the atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient (E(0)) mice, consumption of liposomal glutathione (12.5 or 50mg/kg/day, for 2 months), but not control liposomes, resulted in a significant reduction in the serum susceptibility to AAPH-induced oxidation by 33%. Liposomal glutathione (50mg/kg/day) consumption also resulted in an increment (by 12%) in the mice peritoneal macrophages (MPM) glutathione content, paralleled by a significant reduction in total cellular lipid peroxides content (by 40%), compared to placebo-treated mice MPM. MPM paraoxonase 2 activity was significantly increased by 27% and by 121%, after liposomal glutathione consumption (12.5 or 50mg/kg/day, respectively). Analyses of cellular cholesterol fluxes revealed that, liposomal glutathione (12.5mg/kg/day) consumption, decreased the extent of oxidized-LDL (Ox-LDL) uptake by 17% and the cellular cholesterol biosynthesis rate, by 34%, and stimulated HDL-induced macrophage cholesterol efflux, by 19%. Most important, a significant reduction in macrophage cholesterol mass (by 24%), and in the atherosclerotic lesion area (by 30%) was noted. We thus conclude that liposomal glutathione possesses anti-oxidative and anti-atherogenic properties towards lipoproteins and macrophages, leading to attenuation of atherosclerosis development.

    PMID: 17588583 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


    Neurochem Res. 2010 Oct;35(10):1575-87. Epub 2010 Jun 10.
    Liposomal-glutathione provides maintenance of intracellular glutathione and neuroprotection in mesencephalic neuronal cells.

    Zeevalk GD, Bernard LP, Guilford FT.

    Department of Neurology, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA zeevalgd@umdnj.edu
    Abstract

    A liposomal preparation of glutathione (GSH) was investigated for its ability to replenish intracellular GSH and provide neuroprotection in an in vitro model of Parkinson's disease using paraquat plus maneb (PQMB) in rat mesencephalic cultures. In mixed neuronal/glial cultures depleted of intracellular GSH, repletion to control levels occurred over 4 h with liposomal-GSH or non-liposomal-GSH however, liposomal-GSH was 100-fold more potent; EC(50s) 4.75 ?M and 533 ?M for liposomal and non-liposomal-GSH, respectively. Liposomal-GSH utilization was also observed in neuronal cultures, but with a higher EC(50) (76.5 ?M), suggesting that glia facilitate utilization. Blocking ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase with buthionine sulfoxamine prevented replenishment with liposomal-GSH demonstrating the requirement for catabolism and resynthesis. Repletion was significantly attenuated with endosomal inhibition implicating the endosomal system in utilization. Liposomal-GSH provided dose-dependent protection against PQMB with an EC(50) similar to that found for repletion. PQMB depleted intracellular GSH by 50%. Liposomal-GSH spared endogenous GSH during PQMB exposure, but did not require GSH biosynthesis for protection. No toxicity was observed with the liposomal preparation at 200-fold the EC(50) for repletion. These findings indicate that glutathione supplied in a liposomal formulation holds promise as a potential therapeutic for neuronal maintenance.

    PMID: 20535554 [PubMed - in process]