Streptococcal Syndrome: The undetectable infection?

Discussion in 'Fibromyalgia and ME & Chronic Fatigue Syndrome' started by RadioFM, Jun 23, 2014.

  1. RadioFM

    RadioFM Member

    Radio: I have had problems with streptococcal infections in my family for many years. My sister develop meningitis at 5 years old. My brother develop myocarditis at 25 and my grandmother rheumatic fever at age 19. I feel that streptococcal infections needs more research. Please review these links below.


    "Staphylococcus aureus is a bacterial species which commonly infects the human body where its growth and persistence is limited by the amount of iron present (Massey, 2001). Up to 25% of ndividuals have S. aureus colonies either in their nose or on their skin (CDC, 2006). S. aureus is known to cause a multitude of illnesses in infected humans, most notably Cellulitis, Osteomyelitis, Endocarditis, Toxic Shock Syndrome, and Bacteremia.S. aureususually coinfects with another bacterial species,Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Mitchell, 2010)" See more here: http://www.uta.edu/math/preprint/rep2013_05.pdf



    "Post streptococcal syndromes may manifest in multiple organs including the musculoskeletal, central nervous, urinary, integumentary, and circulatory systems. The commonly described post streptococcal syndromes include acute rheumatic fever, post streptococcal glomerulonephritis, post streptococcal arthritis, and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders. Classically, these complications occur more often in children. While much is written in the pediatric literature regarding these syndromes, a compilation of information is difficult to find. This article summarizes some of the frequently described post streptococcal syndromes and associations." See more here: http://ispub.com/IJRH/6/2/12159






    "Post streptococcal related myalgia/myositis
    : Myalgias are reported in association with streptococcal and/or post streptococcal syndromes. Clinical presentations include severe muscle pain and/or tenderness.37,38 Laboratory data may show elevation in sedimentation rates and leukocytosis, but muscle enzymes and muscle biopsies may be normal. Several cases of post streptococcal polymyalgias have responded to penicillin, NSAIDs or steroid therapy.38-40 " See more here:http://ispub.com/IJRH/6/2/12159




    Polymyalgia Rheumatica - CRASH! USMLE Step 2 and 3



    Last edited: Oct 19, 2014 at 9:53 PM
  2. Mikie

    Mikie Moderator

    No one knows for sure the cause of our conditions. Many are convinced that whatever triggered their CFIDS/ME or FMS is the cause, but cause is not the same as relationship. It's a common assumption people make. I do not believe we can heal until we address our chronic infections but even after or infections are under control, most of us are not cured. Physical or emotional trauma, stress, injury, etc. are known to trigger our conditions. There can be many triggers.

    Love, Mikie
  3. RadioFM

    RadioFM Member

    Radio: I feel we need to identify these possible chronic infections in order to have a chance of keeping them under control.

    Yes, there many contributing factors related to FM. But, I have not seen Post Streptococcal Syndrome discussed as a possible factor?


    See links below...






    Infectious Causes

    Infection may be the most common trigger leading to vasculitis. As a model, vasculitis due to infection is mediated through a type III or immune-complex reaction where the antigens are the infectious agents or antigenic portions of them.[36] After the zone of equivalence is reached, the immune complexes precipitate and become trapped within vessel walls, stimulating an immune response that ultimately leads to vascular injury. Candida polysaccharides and fragments of gram-positive and gram-negative organisms can activate the alternate pathway and also lead to the inflammatory reaction characteristic of vasculitis. Alternatively, direct endothelial cell invasion can be the main pathogenic process in infections caused by cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex, rickettsiae, fungi, and bacteria. Recent concepts suggest other mechanisms may be at work as well in the development of vasculitis within the context of infection. Cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor and various interleukins, are produced directly by the stimulation from the infectious agents. Subsequently, recruitment of neutrophils to the small vessels occurs and leads to the development of vasculitis. Vasculitis related to infection due to streptococcus and staphylococcus has been associated with this mechanism of vascular injury. See more here: http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/407580_7




    The Content is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Pay it forward and never give up the fight!
    Last edited: Oct 9, 2014
  4. Mikie

    Mikie Moderator

    Some bacteria do not go away. People with Lyme or mycoplasma infections may have the bacteria go into a cyst form deep inside body tissue. Getting injured, sick or being stressed can allow these latent cysts to become active again. I have a chronic mycoplasma infection which has been latent for a long time (knocking on wood :) Unfortunately, many docs do not realize that just a couple of courses of ABX will not stop these infections. It takes at least a six-month course of ABX to deal with mycoplasma infections and, even then, one may have to pulse off and on the ABX for a much longer time. I was on Doxycycline for 2 1/2 years to drive my mycoplasma infection into latency. That's likely because it went untreated for so long until I found Dr. Nicolson.

    Herpes-Family viral infections also never go away and can reactivate under the same conditions as above. Keeping everything latent may be the best we can do with some of these chronic infections. Building up a healthy immune system is absolutely necessary to keeping these infections at bay. Our treatments have to be multi-faceted. Transfer Factors can really help with this. I also took them and they were much stronger than either ABX or AVs.

    Love, Mikie
    RadioFM likes this.
  5. RadioFM

    RadioFM Member




    Radio:
    Yes, I agree with you 100%....Lyme disease is a hug factor to consider and needs to be evaluated. Yes, we need to build up the immune system and it will be necessary in-order to help keep these infection under control.







    Radio:
    I feel that streptococcal infection may be inside lymphatic system as well and deep inside body tissue. Please review these threads as there is some great research links on this topic.


    Last edited: Sep 15, 2014
  6. Abdulrahman

    Abdulrahman Member

    Hello Radio,

    I am responding to your first message. Wth regard to those that have repeated and long term bacterial infections as you stated such as Myocarditis [ Heart Tissue Infection] and Menigitis there is an important factor i discovered; and that is that the immune deficiency is not the only cause of such infections. A very important cause is the serious deficiency in human tissues of critical minerals that are anti-viral and anti-bacterial.

    The following minerals exhibit anti-bacterial resitance when incorporated in tissues such as heart tissue, Kidney tissue, Liver, Brain....: Copper, Selenium, Iodine

    For those with a deficiency in the body of the above minerals, there will be a low resistance to bacterial attack, and this is dangerous to the critical organs. The proof of the above statement is that if you study the concentration of the above minerals in Heart Tissue, Liver, and Kidneys the levels are far higher than found in other tissues. The body is incorporating a high concentration of these minerals in such critical organs to act as an anti-viral and anti-bacterial shield.

    The majority of people have little idea of how much Copper or Selenium should be stored in the body and where are the highest food sources.
    RadioFM likes this.
  7. Abdulrahman

    Abdulrahman Member

    ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT OF SELENIUM, GERMANIUM, AND LITHIUM ON CLINICALLY IMPORTANT BACTERIA GROWING IN PLANKTONIC CULTURE AND BIOFILMS – SOME MEDICAL IMPLICATIONS
    Alquthami, Khalid (2012)ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT OF SELENIUM, GERMANIUM, AND LITHIUM ON CLINICALLY IMPORTANT BACTERIA GROWING IN PLANKTONIC CULTURE AND BIOFILMS – SOME MEDICAL IMPLICATIONS. PhD thesis, University of Sheffield
    Abstract
    The antibacterial effects of lithium, selenium, and germanium were evaluated with respect to growth, biofilm formation, and mutational frequencies (MF), of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli. Selenium showed the highest antimicrobial and bactericidal activities as shown by zone of inhibition assay and scanning electron microscopy imaging (SEM). The SEM images showed that the metals in culture media led to cell disintegration that could have resulted in the leakage of cytoplasmic constituents, and cell dehydration. In biofilms, the combination of metal and antibiotics increased oxidative stress, mutational frequencies(MF), and formation of mutator phenotypes. Adding the antioxidant ascorbic acid reduced the S. aureus biofilm MF, but increased the MF of P. aeruginosa biofilm. Image analysis showed that metal and ascorbic acid cooperated in destroying cell structure pointing to the effectiveness of the antioxidant to prevent the formation of reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress, and bacterial DNA mutation rates. Generally, results showed that the antibacterial effect depended on the combinations of metal, antibiotic and antioxidant different and the bacterial strain being tested. Biofilm cultures yielded adherent colony variants that differed in appearance and in the capability of the variants to form hypermutator phenotypes with relatively high MFs. There was perfect sequence alignment of an approximately 500 bases of the P. aeruginosa 16S rDNA fragment of the wild-type and colony variants. In contrast, the 16S rDNA sequence of S. aureus variant showed several mutations, deletions, and insertions, implying the high mutability of S. aureus when exposed to external factors. Further studies should be conducted on the molecular basis of the antibacterial action and possible applications of selenium, germanium, and lithium in reducing antibiotic resistance, and biofilm infection. In addition, there is a need to understand bacterial adaptation to metals and their interaction with other antimicrobial agents in order to design effective drug therapies.
    RadioFM likes this.
  8. Abdulrahman

    Abdulrahman Member

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antimicrobial_properties_of_copper


    Mechanisms of antibacterial action of copper[edit]
    In 1973, researchers at Battelle Columbus Laboratories[4] conducted a comprehensive literature, technology and patent search that traced the history of understanding the “bacteriostatic and sanitizing properties of copper and copper alloy surfaces” which demonstrated that copper, in very small quantities, has the power to control a wide range of molds, fungi, algae and harmful microbes. Of the 312 citations mentioned in the review across the time period 1892–1973, the observations below are noteworthy:
    A subsequent paper [11] probed some of copper’s antimicrobial mechanisms and cited no fewer than 120 investigations into the efficacy of copper’s action on microbes. The authors noted that the antimicrobial mechanisms are very complex and take place in many ways, both inside cells and in the interstitial spaces between cells.
    Examples of some of the molecular mechanisms noted by various researchers include the following:
    • The 3-dimensional structure of proteins can be altered by copper, so that the proteins can no longer perform their normal functions. The result is inactivation of bacteria or viruses [11]
    • Copper complexes form radicals that inactivate viruses.[12][13]
    • Copper may disrupt enzyme structures, and functions by binding to sulfur- or carboxylate-containing groups and amino groups of proteins.[14]
    • Copper may interfere with other essential elements, such as zinc and iron.
    • Copper facilitates deleterious activity in superoxide radicals. Repeated redox reactions on site-specific macromolecules generate OH- radicals, thereby causing “multiple hit damage” at target sites.[15][16]
    • Copper can interact with lipids, causing their peroxidation and opening holes in the cell membranes, thereby compromising the integrity of cells.[17] This can cause leakage of essential solutes, which in turn, can have a desiccating effect.
    • Copper damages the respiratory chain in Escherichia coli cells.[18] and is associated with impaired cellular metabolism.[19]
    • Faster corrosion correlates with faster inactivation of microorganisms. This may be due to increased availability of cupric ion, Cu2+, which is believed to be responsible for the antimicrobial action.[20]
    • In inactivation experiments on the flu strain, H1N1, which is nearly identical to the H5N1 avian strain and the 2009 H1N1 (swine flu) strain, researchers hypothesized that copper’s antimicrobial action probably attacks the overall structure of the virus and therefore has a broad-spectrum effect.[21]
    • Microbes require copper-containing enzymes to drive certain vital chemical reactions. Excess copper, however, can affect proteins and enzymes in microbes, thereby inhibiting their activities. Researchers believe that excess copper has the potential to disrupt cell function both inside cells and in the interstitial spaces between cells, probably acting on the cells’ outer envelope.[22]
    RadioFM likes this.
  9. Abdulrahman

    Abdulrahman Member

    Warning: Please note that the above minerals should be taken only in their organic state otherwise when in their mineral chemical form, they are looked upon by the body as pollutants, not as critical minerals to be used for physiological functions. Therfeore, mineral Copper is damaging to your health, and the same applies to Selenium.

    But when eaten through high concentration organic sources, the result is instant absorption by the body and very great health benefits. Plants absorb the minerals from soils and then transform the minerals into organic molecules which the human body will absorb well. In addition, animals eat such plants and will concentrate the minerals in some organs. For example, liver is the highest source of copper in animals and humans because it is stored there by the animal body. The Highest plant sources in the world for the anti-bacterial and anti-viral minerals are:

    Copper: Tamarind Fruit ----------------- 20 mg Copper/100 g Fruit , Extremely High Concentration, about 100 x typical concentrations in foods

    Selenium: Brazil Nuts -------------------- 550 mcg/Ounce or six to eight nuts, Extremely High about 20 x other highest selenium foods

    Sulfur: Mustard Seed or Mustard Sauce -------------- 10,000 mg Sulfur/100 g seed extremely High, about 20 x other high Sulfur Foods

    Iodine: Seaweed -------------------Varies from seaplant to seaplant but can be averaged at 1000 mcg Iodine/1 grams dried seaweed


    Abdulrahman
    RadioFM likes this.
  10. RadioFM

    RadioFM Member

    Radio: The undetectable infection?


    Intestinal staphylococcal small colony variants: a cause of medically unexplained physical symptoms?


    "Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is often associated with food intolerances, fibromyalgia, and chronic fatigue (1), a symptom cluster commonly denoted as medically unexplained physical symptoms."


    "CNS species are considered normal commensals on skin and mucosal membranes and therefore often ignored by clinicians. However, in both humans and animals, CNS is now a growing concern due to persistent infections at several body sites (2). By switching to a SCV phenotype, metabolism is slowed down, enabling intracellular growth and escape from antibiotics and immunological attacks (3). In fact, formation of SCVs may be a consequence of antibiotic therapy (4), as might be the case in the present cases. Extensive growth of CNS in the gastrointestinal tract of patients with IBS is therefore a potentially important finding. Some earlier studies with a staphylococcal vaccine suggested that staphylococcal infections may be involved in the pathogenesis of fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue (5), but we were unable to find reports on any relationship between staphylococcal infections and IBS. The present cases remind us that intestinal CNS, and maybe staphylococcal SCVs in particular, should not be neglected as a possible cause of IBS and associated conditions (1). The disease mechanisms may involve activation of innate immunity (note increased numbers of duodenal IELs), which in turn will modify tryptophan metabolism with a range of consequences including impaired brain and gut functions as outlined earlier (6)." See more here: http://www.microbecolhealthdis.net/index.php/mehd/article/view/25817/35809
    Last edited: Oct 11, 2014
  11. RadioFM

    RadioFM Member

    Radio: Could subgroups of FM be related t0 Chronic Osteomyelitis/ Polymyalgia rheumatica ?


    Polymyalgia Rheumatica | Doctor | Patient.co.uk
    "Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is an inflammatory condition of unknown cause which ... Infections, including viral syndromes, osteomyelitis, infective endocarditis, tuberculosis"

    Polymyalgia Rheumatica - Medical Disability Guidelines

    "Polymyalgia rheumatica is an inflammatory syndrome that is characterized by pain and stiffness of the neck, shoulders, lower back, and hips. It is often accompanied by constitutional symptoms such as fever, weight loss, and feelings of uneasiness or discomfort. Individuals who have the syndrome complain of pain and stiffness severe enough to make routine tasks such as combing their hair or getting dressed quite difficult."

    "Inflammation of the bursa (bursitis), synovial membrane (synovitis), and tendon sheath (tenosynovitis) of the hip and shoulder are characteristic of polymyalgia rheumatica. The etiology is unknown, but the syndrome is believed to have an autoimmune component and does not appear to stem from any defect of muscle or joints. One explanation is that infection may trigger an exaggerated immune response, which in turn affects individuals with an inherited predisposition for developing the condition. About 15% of people diagnosed with polymyalgia develop temporal arteritis, also called giant cell arteritis (GCA); correspondingly, 50% of people with GCA also develop polymyalgia (Saad). Polymyalgia and temporal arteritis share several characteristics: they are positive for the human leukocyte antigen HLA-DR4, demonstrate systemic monocyte activation, and show a polymorphism in the region of the HLA-DRB1 gene, suggesting a genetic component."



    Radio:
    These infections can use biofilms to attach them self to bone and our genetic predispositions can determine your risk factor. There is a good article on the HLA-DR here:

    Last edited: Oct 19, 2014 at 9:58 PM
  12. RadioFM

    RadioFM Member

    What Are Bacterial Biofilms?

  13. RadioFM

    RadioFM Member

    "Osteomyelitis is an infection of bone and bone marrow caused by hematogenous or contiguous spread of the organism from local infection and or open traumatic fracture. Acute osteomyelitis frequently evolves into a chronic disease. The term cure is not used since the bone infection may relapse after many years of successful remission. In this viewpoint, osteomyelitis behaves much like a benign tumor, in that, it rarely kills, but tends to return without complete ablation. Furthermore, the management of osteomyelitis involves diagnosis, staging, treatment, and reconstruction, using methods similar to those used in tumor surgery. The present section will discuss the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of osteomyelitis."

    Pathogenesis and Biofilms

    "The precise definition of a biofilm has continued to evolve as this area of research progressively expands. Today a biofilm can best be described as a dynamic and heterogeneous community of sessile bacteria which are surrounded by an extra cellular matrix of polymers. These bacteria by definition exhibit an altered phenotype in comparison to their free floating planktonic counterparts. This entire conglomeration, known as the biofilm, is adherent to an inert surface (e.g. plates, bony sequestra, or a prosthetic joint replacement). The structure of a biofilm consists of three basic elements: bacteria, extra cellular matrix, and other interstitial metabolic components. The biofilm is a dynamic microenvironment with continual ebbs and flows. Pockets of grouped sessile bacteria are surrounded by exopolysaccharide glycocalyces. These micro colonies are found with interspersed water channels which provide for the flow of various metabolites, chemicals and nutrients. Biofilms appear to tend to form in areas of high mechanical shear. Here the colonies formed show remarkable resistance to mechanical breakage."

    "Numerous bacterial species have been described to form biofilms. Most commonly in orthopaedic surgery, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are the underlying causative organisms of musculoskeletal infections. The clinical significance of biofilms in orthopaedic surgery lies in the fact that biofilms form on implanted hardware and cause infections that are difficult to eradicate. This apparent antibiotic resistance does not appear to be mediated through traditional cellular modes of antibiotic resistance such as efflux pumps, deactivating enzymes, or target protein mutations. The extra cellular glycocalyx matrix portion of the biofilm constitutes one potential area of antibiotic resistance. In some instances, diffusion from outside of the biofilm inwards to the sessile bacteria may present a barrier which limits the efficacy of a given antibiotic. Likewise specific antibiotics may be bound by the extra cellular portion of the biofilm and hence rendered ineffective. The polymeric extra cellular portion of the biofilm can also serve to create an altered microenvironment in which certain compounds may be less able to exert specific effects. Sessile bacteria within biofilms appear to be phenotypically different from their planktonic counterparts."

    See more here:

    Osteomyelitis - Infectious Disease
  14. RadioFM

    RadioFM Member